(Last Updated on : 18/01/2016)
Types of Indian crafts have undergone transformation over the years and the proficiency of construction has not altered to a great extent. Indian crafts are highly acclaimed throughout the world for their aesthetic appeal and magnificence. The diverse cultural traditions of India have enabled the accomplishment of producing various kinds of crafts. The crafts are composed of different materials, themes and proficiencies. Works on woodwork, pottery
, hand looms, terracotta
and embroidery etc have survived through centuries with fewer changes.
Bubblegram Craftof India
A bubblegram is a three dimensional image which is composed of points and remains suspended in a medium, usually a plastic block. Laser bubble-gram is in vogue. Crossing lasers in 'appropriately-doped' plastic, which may cause a chemical reaction through heat or 'photonic' inflammation makes these images. Such crafts are manufactured in several lanes of Kolkata
Clay Craft of India
The origin of clay crafts in the country dates back to as early as the Indus Valley Civilisation
. The Indian states
of Himachal Pradesh
, Uttar Pradesh
, West Bengal
are renowned for their diverse form of clay crafts. The terracotta crafts of West Bengal, 'kagzi' or paper pottery made in Alwar
region of Rajasthan and 'khurja' pottery of Uttar Pradesh are quite popular. During the Sultanate
period in Delhi
and Uttar Pradesh, India proceeded with its own manufactory of blue pottery.
Stone Craft of India
The art of sculpture
is the poetic expression of stone craft. Sculptures of deities, decorative for house interiors, modelled on classical prototypes, continue to be made in every nook and corner of India. In the interiors of India such sculptures and exquisite figures are carved in relief with details engraved in fine lines. These objects are handmade artistic work made using hammer and chisels. Madhya Pradesh
and Rajasthan are well-known centres of production of beautiful stone crafts.
Glass craft of India
As early as 800 B.C., i.e, at the time when the Yajur Veda
was composed, glass craft was very popular. It is evident from the archaeological findings at Basti
in Uttar Pradesh that glassware is about 2000 years old. The way glass is prepared transformed into various shapes is remarkable. Various decorative products like chandeliers, glass lamps, hanging lamp shades, glass lanterns, glass jewelleries like bangles and many other products are manufactured in different portions of India.
Metal Craft of India
Metal crafts in India include the numerous products which are made with the aide of several metals like gold, silver, bronze, brass, copper and bell metal. Silver filigree work of Andhra Pradesh
and Orissa, brassware of Rajasthan, Orissa and other Indian states, 'dokra
' metal crafts of Orissa, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh
, metal enamelled work of Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh and marvellous metal crafts of bell metal
manufactured in Kerala
, Bihar, Tripura
are worth mentioning.
Lac Craft of India
The states of Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand
, West Bengal, Punjab
specialise in the production of magnificent lac crafts like bangles, utensils and decorative products. Lac industry has been growing since ancient times and over the years; many adept artisans have emerged throughout the country. Lac work is applied to furniture and other decorative items.
Horn and Bone Craft of India
The craftsmen of states like Kerala
, Uttar Pradesh
and the Gajapati district
of Orissa are engaged in crafting various horn and bone crafts like walking sticks, pen stands, paper weights, snuff boxes, table lamps, lamp shades and many more.
Ivory Craft of India
Crafts involving ivory crafting is popular in the states like Kerala
, Delhi, Gujarat, Rajasthan and West Bengal. The ivory carvers of Jaipur , Bengal and Delhi are known for their engraved models of 'ambari hathi' or processional elephant, bullock carts, sandals , caskets, book covers, and palanquins. Craftsmen of Gujarat carve exquisite human figures as also images of deities. Uttar Pradesh is famous for its ivory products of deities, dancing figures and decorative plaques.
Leather Craft of India
India is famous for its leather products. The state of Uttar Pradesh is an important source for finished leather and leather products. The tanneries in Kanpur are known all over the world for the finest quality leather tanned by them. Kanpur
in Uttar Pradesh are the two renowned production centres for leather items.
Wood Craft of India
Indian woodcrafts have existed in the nation ever since ancient periods. The craft of manufacturing products with the help of wood was practised even prior to the stone sculptural age. Mainpuri
region of Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala and Jammu and Kashmir
are some of the Indian states which are famous for their woodcrafts. Even Rajasthan is noted for its carved sandalwood and rosewood besides silhouetting the industrial horizon with heavy ornamental furniture.
Paper Craft of India
The tradition of the paper craft in India is fairly old. The paper industry was located mainly in Patna
, Delhi, Rajgir
and Shahzadpur (near Allahabad)
. Since the paper is one of the easily perishable materials, the traditions of the paper craft have been left unrecorded.
Other Crafts of India
Weaving and dyeing craft
s, pottery crafts, tarakashi crafts, bamboo
and cane craft
s, shell craft
s, papier mache
' crafts, 'kiritams' or theatre crafts are some of the other significant crafts of India. The crafts of India not only provide the daily needs of the people, but are also utilized for decorative and religious ceremonies in India. There are varieties of crafts available in India. They are exquisite and delicate, providing new definitions to the Indian crafts and artefacts. There are several sub categories, which include bubblegram
, glass blowing, glass bead making, stained glass, mosaics and pottery.