(Last Updated on : 30/04/2014)
Resources in India basically refer to the environment's natural essence. They contain a significant amount of material as well as aesthetic values and can be classified into renewable
and non-renewable resources
. Renewable resources chiefly include living sources like forests, as well as non-living sources such as soil
. The fundamental feature of renewable resources their sustainability. Thus, it is very important to draw the lines between how many resources in India to be used and how much to be left in order to give nature the time and chance to reproduce the used-up resources. Flow resources in the country basically include sunlight, wind and tide. The conservation of resources in India is given supreme significance not because of the sake of the making of commodities, but because of maintaining a balance between the environmental and ecological reasons. India is conferred with wide rich natural resources because of its geographical position, and the natural resources vary from dense forestry stretches to vast water bodies.
There are two different kinds of resources: Biotic and Abiotic, depending on their reserves are derived from organic matter and from living creatures including wildlife
, crops, forest products and others. A majority of them are all renewable since they can be restores. Fossil fuels are also biotic resources as they are obtained from decayed organic sources. Abiotic resources are the ones which are derived from non-organic as well as non-living matter like air and water. They, once exhausted can never be replenished again. Minor minerals
, metallic and non metallic substances can be categorized as under abiotic resources.
Forests are an important resource and represent about 21 percent of the geographical area of forests involving Alpine, Tropical, Mangrove
and Swamp Forests. Products like paper
, drugs, firewood, gums, herbs
, etc. are collected from forests. Rich aquatic life of India and its 8129 km long coastline, lakes
, ponds, reservoirs and rivers
enables Indians to relish fishes like Mackerals
, Shrimps, Catfish, Weed-fish, Carangids, Sardines, Croakers, Murrel
and much more. Innumerable species of fishes are exported which has made the fish industry
is one of the most crucial resources whose mining commenced during 1774, thanks to the East India Company
under whom the Raniganj Coalfield
operated on the western banks of Damodar River
, West Bengal
. Coal supplies are essential for manufacturing chemicals, cement
, fertilizers, paper and energy requirements.
India boasts of being the second-largest oil producer after China and most of its oil reserves are based off the shores of Bay of Bengal
, the north-eastern portion of India and also the western coast of Mumbai
High. Nearly about 30 percent of India's oil resources are obtained from India itself, mainly from Rajasthan. The Oil and Natural Gas
Corporation is the biggest oil company in the nation. Natural Gas, another important natural resource is produced in Gujarat
, Andhra Pradesh
. Indian is well-endowed with this resource with [Oil India] Ltd. (OIL) or ONGC as one of the major companies of treating natural gas.
Abiotic Natural Resources
Metallic minerals which can be found in India include Chromite, Silver, Copper
, Iron Ore
, Tin, Manganese
and Zinc. Copper has been utilized in the country since ancient ages and has been mentioned in 'Arthashastra
' for making utensils and electrical equipments. Jharkhand
and Madhya Pradesh
are the main locales which possess Copper. The lustrous metal Zinc is available in Maharashtra
, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar
and Madhya Pradesh. It is useful for machinery, electrical and automotive industry. The world's largest exporter of iron
ore is India as per the statistics of 2013 with Magnetite and Hematite being existent in the nation. Goa
, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh
are famous for Hematite while Tamil Nadu
, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are reputed for containing Magnetite. The Steel Authority of India or SAIL and National Mineral Development Corporation are the important organisations which are major contributors of its production. Chromites is an oxide of iron and chromium and are obtained from Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, Nagaland
and is an important ingredient of alloys it is resists corrosion.
, Vanadium, Wollastonite, Sillimanite, Ilmenite, Garnet
, Phosphorite, Fluorite, Dunite, Asbestos, Felspar, Kaolin, Limestone, Cadmium, Vermiculite, Bentonite, Gallium, Pyrophyllite, Gypsum, Perlite, Soapstone are the various non-metallic mineral resources of the country. Garnet is utilized for water jet cutting, as semi precious stones
and as abrasives, being available in Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Kerala
, Odisha and Chattisgarh. Gujarat and Tamil Nadu are known to possess Wollastonite, which is used as Plastic, Rubber, Paint, etc. Sillimanite is found in large quantities in Rajasthan, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya
, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, etc. Pyrophyllite is employed for creating sanitary-ware, electrical insulators and other products. It is found in Rajasthan, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and more.
India also boasts of minor minerals including sand, gravel, quartzite, brick earth, marble and others which are available in various parts of the nation. Haryana
, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh are quite reputed for producing marble.