Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920) was a well known Indian nationalist. In the early part of the 20th century when the trend of Indian independence was mostly guided by Extremism, Tilak became the uncrowned king. Tilak was one of the first and strongest proponents of Swaraj and he was also considered as the father of Hindu Nationalism. Tilak was credited to be the first nationalist leader who sought close contact with the masses. In this respect he was the precursor of Mahatma Gandhi.
Barindra Kumar Ghose
Barindra Kumar Ghose was the youngest son of Dr.Krishnadhan Ghose, renowned physician and a reputed district surgeon and Swarnalata Ghose, daughter to famous Brahmo religious and social reformer Rajnarayan Basu. Monmohan Ghosh ,scholar of English literature, a poet and professor of English at Presidency College, Calcutta and at Dacca University , was Barindra's second elder brother and his third elder brother was the national activist, revolutionary and spiritualist, Shri Aurobindo Ghose.
Dr B R Ambedkar
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar had immense contribution in the shaping modern India. He led millions of oppressed, to a life of self-respect, dignity, and responsibility. Babasaheb, as he was also known as, always stressed the importance of better education, so that position of common people in society can be improved. It was he, who was primarily responsible for the formulation of Constitution - adopted after India became independent. Babasaheb began the revival of Buddhism in India that has grown tremendously after his death, and continues to grow today among his countless followers. He was a veritable phenomenon of the 20th century. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, was chiefly responsible for drafting of The Constitution of India. He was the first Law Minister of India. On the 14th October, 1956, Babasaheb Ambedkar embraced Buddhism. He continued the crusade for social revolution until the end of his life on the 6th December 1956. He was honoured with the highest national honour, 'Bharat Ratna' in April 1990. B.R Ambedkar was affectionately called Baba Saheb Ambedkar.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, led the nation through the Indian freedom struggle with his ideologies of Ahimsa or Non-violence, Civil Disobedience Movement and Swaraj. He was the leader of Indian National Congress and initiated the Satyagraha movement. He was honoured the title Mahatma, meaning Great Soul, by Rabindranath Tagore. Mahatma Gandhi is Known as Father of Nation and played a key role in the Indian freedom struggle. Mahatma Gandhi's main contribution lay in the fact that he bridged the gulf between the intelligentsia and the masses and widened the concept of Swaraj to include almost every aspect of social and moral regeneration. Paying tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his death, famous scientist Albert Einstein said, "Generations to come will scarce believe that such a man as this walked the earth in flesh and blood".
Homi Modi was born on 23rd September, 1881.He graduated from the prestigious St. Xavier's College in Bombay. He also obtained M A and a degree in Law. He was the member of legislative Assembly from 1929 to1943. In 1929, he was selected as the member of First Round Table Conference in 1929. Homi Modi represented India in the International Labour Conference in Geneva in 1937.He was appointed as the member for Supply in the Viceroy's Executive Council. Homi Modi was also selected as the member of Constituent Assembly of India. After independence, he served as the Governor of Bombay and Uttar Pradesh. Homi Modi was also involved with a number of company and association including Tata Group of Hydro-Electric Company, Indian Institute of Art-in Industry, Indian Hotel's Company Limited, Associated Cement Companys Limited, Indian Banks Association. Homi Modi served, as the chairman of the Central Bank of India Limited. He became the President of Indo-American Society and the Indian Council of World Affairs, Bombay Branch. Homi Modi passed away in the year 1969.He received honorary LL.D. and D. LITT.
Jai Rajguru was an Indian freedom fighter. His original name was Jaykrushna Mahapatra. He was born on October 29, 1739 near Puri in Orissa to father Shri Chandra Rajguru and mother Smt. Haramani Debi. He came to be known as Jayee Rajguru after his appointment as 'Rajguru' to the king. He grew up to be an outstanding Sanskrit scholar and intellectual of the 18th century. Later he fought for his motherland against the British. Rajguru not only proved to be a great royal priest but also an accomplished Commander-in-Chief and a freedom fighter. He was the first martyr in the national freedom struggle from Orissa.
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was born on November 11, 1888 in Mecca. He belonged to an orthodox Muslim scholar family. The original name of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin. His ancestors came to India from Afghanistan. His mother was an Arab and his father Maulana Khairuddin, was a Bengali Muslim of Afghan origin. Maulana Khairuddin shifted to Mecca in 1857. He returned to India in 1890 and started living in Calcutta. His mother died when he was only 11 years old. Initially Maulana Abul Kalam Azad received the traditional Islamic education at home. After that he was taught Arabic, Persian, philosophy, geometry, mathematics and algebra by some great teachers. He also acquired huge knowledge in English, history, politics and general science.
Ammu Swaminathan was born on 1894 in the Palghat district of Kerala.She was the youngest daughter of Govinda Menon. Ammu Swaminathan married to a famous Barrister at the age of only 13. She received formal education mostly from her husband. Ammu Swaminathan became the follower of Mahatma Gandhi and joined Indian independence movement.She was one of the few women members in the Constituent Assembly of India.After independence she was elected as the member of Rajya Sabha from Madras State. Ammu Swaminathan was sent to Ethiopia, China, USA, USSR as an ambassador of India.
Rash Behari Bose
Rash Behari Bose was born in Subaldaha village of Bardhaman district. He had completed his education in Chandannagar. He had left Bengal as he was not supporting the Alipore bomb case. Thereafter he went to Dehradun where through Amarendra Chatterjee of Jugantar he was in touch with the revolutionaries of Bengal. Through Jatindra Nath, one of the earliest political disciples of Aurobindo Ghosh he came across several well known revolutionaries of Arya Samaj in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.
Chittaranjan Das belonged to the Das family of Telirbagh, in Bikrampur district. His father was Bhuban Mohan Das. He had completed his education in England and became a Barrister. His career began in 1909 when he defended Aurobindo Ghosh on charges of involvement in the Alipore bomb case. During the non cooperation movement he was a leading figure in Bengal. He initiated the ban on British clothes by burning his own European clothes and wearing Khadi clothes.
Benoy Krishna Basu
Benoy Krishna Basu was born on 11 September 1908, in Rohitbhog village of Munshiganj District. His father was an engineer. Post his success in matriculation examination he enrolled into the Mitford Medical School. He was influenced by a revolutionary of Dhaka Hemchandra Ghosh to join Benoy joined the 'Mukti Sangha'. It was a secret society that was connected with the Jugantar Party. Due to his association with revolutionary activities he was unable to complete his studies.
Jogendra Nath Mandal
Jogendra Nath Mandal was a well known Indian freedom fighter, statesman and was amongst the foremost founding members of the present state of Pakistan. He was also a legislator who served as the first minister of law and labor of the country. He was born on 29 January 1904 in the province of Bengal during the rule of British Empire in India. Jogendra Nath Mandal, popularly known as J.N. Mandal, also acted as the 2nd minister of commonwealth and Kashmir affairs. He was also a member of the Muslim League Party. He was appointed as the first minister of law and labour in Pakistan. During his tenure as the leader of the Scheduled Castes, Jogendra Nath supported the demand of the Muslim League for the creation of Pakistan. During the massacre in East Bengal in 1950, he left India and gave his resignation to the then Prime Minister of the state of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan.
Rammanohar Lohia, a socialist political leader as well as a noted freedom fighter of India was born in the village of Akbarpur, Uttar Pradesh on 23rd March, 1910. He was born to Hira Lal, a patriot and a teacher and Chanda. He did his intermediate from Banaras Hindu University. He did his Bachelor of Arts from University of Calcutta in 1929. Lohia then flew to Germany whereby he joined Berlin University and learnt German.
Kunwar Singh was one of the most important freedom fighters in the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. Kunwar Singh was born in Jagdishpur in the Shahabad (now in Bhojpur District) of Bihar.
Khudiram Bose was one of the thousands who fought for their birthright "freedom" and also curbed the power and stirred the British Government. In Indian history, several revolutionists without a backward glance moved forward to free their motherland. Their love for India was intense and they never thought of their personal relations and comfort. Among them, Khudiram Bose who at a tender age, was attracted towards the sacred words of Vande Mataram and showed the guts to devote his soul to the war of Independence.
Bhagat Singh was one of the most well known Indian freedom fighters and Indian revolutionaries and who contributed significantly in the Indian Freedom Struggle against the British. Singh was born in a family that was actively involved in revolutionary activities against the British rule in the country. He is also addressed as Shaheed Bhagat Singh, meaning martyr. Singh was born in a Sikh family which was involved in revolutionary endeavors against the British. He was a prominent member of various revolutionary associations and was also one of the major leaders of the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA), which was later known as the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in the year 1928.
Jayaprakash Narayan was popularly known as JP and was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader. Jayaprakash Narayan is especially known for leading the opposition to Indira Gandhi in the 1970s and for giving a call for peaceful Total Revolution. His nationalist friend and an eminent writer of Hindi literature Ramavriksha Benipuri wrote a biography on Jayaprakash Narayan.
Mangal Pandey is considered as one of the first Indian freedom fighters and was a Sepoy to rise against the British rule during the Great revolt of 1857. He was a sepoy in the 34th Regiment of the Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) of the British East India Company.
Mangal Pandey is well known in the arena of Indian history as he attacked his British officers, sparking off the First War of Indian Independence or as the British termed it, the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. Mangal Pandey perhaps played the most vital role in the Indian freedom struggle. Some scholars also call him an accidental hero. Mangal Pandey at the age of 22 entered the British East India Company Bengal Army in 1849. The role of Mangal Pandey in the British regiment was that of a sepoy (soldier) in the 34th Regiment of the Bengal Native Infantry (BNI). He was a tall lad, lean and well built. Mangal was part of the 5th Company of the 34th BNI regiment, famously acknowledged as fearsome attacking officers. The Company is known to have contributed immensely in what came to be known as the Sepoy Mutiny and the Great Revolt of 1857.
Surya Sen was born on 22 March 1894 in Chittagong. He as a revolutionary took part in non cooperation movement. A commemorative stamp was released on him in 1977 by the Government of India. Surya Sen was a teacher by profession. One of his teachers had initiated into revolutionary ideas in the year 1916 when he was studying in the Chittagong College. Thereafter he joined the revolutionary group Anushilan. In 1929, he became the president of the Chittagong district committee of the Indian National Congress.
He became a teacher of the National school in Nandankanan and later joined the Umatara School at Chandanpura. He initiated a secret warfare against the colonial Government. One of his successful happenings was a robbery at the treasury office of the Bengal Assam Railway at Chittagong on December 23, 1923. The Chittagong Armoury Raid that was done on April 18, 1930 was his major success. Thereafter he marched to Jalalabad hills along with his fellow revolutionaries and post battle with the British troops, he escaped from there.
Prafulla Chaki was born on December 10, 1888 in Bogra district. When he joined Rangpur National School he came in contact with revolutionaries like Jitendranarayan Roy, Abinash Chakravarti, Ishan Chandra Chakravarti. This led him to practicing of the revolutionary philosophies.
Subash Chandra Bose
In the National endeavor to attain freedom many great heroes offered their remarkable contributions to attain Independence for India. Some believed in non-violent means, whereas others did not. One such hero was Subhash Chandra Bose, affectionately known as 'Netaji'. He founded Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) to overthrow British Empire from India. With his magnificent work he earned legendary status among Indian masses. Netaji was a fierce and popular leader in the political scene in pre-independence era with strong patriotism and great visionary ideas
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