(Last Updated on : 14-11-2013)
Geological history of India started with the geological evolution of rest of the Earth i.e. 4.57 billion years ago. India has a diverse geology. Different regions in India feature rocks of all types belonging to different geologic periods.
Some of the rocks in India that are quite significant geologically are deformed and transmuted while others are recently deposited alluvium that have yet to undergo diagnosis. Mineral deposits of high variety are found in the subcontinent in huge quantity. Even the fossil records are impressive in which stromatolites, invertebrates, vertebrates and plant fossils are included. India's geographical land area is classified into Deccan Trap, Gondwana and Vindhyan.
Deccan Trap is one of the most vital geological patches of India. Firstly, the Deccan Trap covers almost all of Maharashtra, a part of Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh marginally. It is believed that the Deccan Trap was formed as result of sub-aerial volcanic activity associated with the continental deviation in this part of the Earth during the Mesozoic era. That is why the rocks found in this region are generally igneous type. During the northward movements of the geological blocks after breaking off from the rest of Gondwana, the Indian Plate passed over a geologic hotspot, the Réunion hotspot, which caused widespread melting below the Indian craton. The melting broke through the surface of the craton in a massive flood basalt event, creating what is known as the Deccan Traps. It is also thought that the Reunion hotspot has resulted in the separation of Madagascar and India.
The Gondwana and Vindhyan region include within its fold parts of the present states like Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttaranchal. The Gondwana Supergroup forms a unique sequence of fluviatile rocks deposited in Permo-Carboniferous time. Damodar and Son river valley and Rajmahal hills in the eastern India is depository of the Gondwana rocks. The geological society of India has immense research works on the geological history of India. This society was established on 28th May, 1958, to promote the cause of advanced studies and research in all branches of Earth Systems Science. The Journal of the society is the flagship publication, which publishes peer-reviewed articles under the category of Review Papers, Research Papers, Notes, Short Communications, Corporate News, Correspondence and book reviews. The Society also brings out Memoirs, Articles, Field-Guides and other important publications that are important documentation associated with Indian geology.