(Last Updated on : 28/02/2014)
Manipur stretches across the border of Myanmar and is centred on a vast lowland area. Manipur is watered by the lake system, south of its capital Imphal
. Almost 70% of the land is under forest area. Earlier different people called Manipur by different names. Some called the state as Monglei, others called it as Mekhlee and still others called it by the name Cassay. The name "Mekhele" as used for Manipur is mentioned in the Mahabharata
and Skanda Purana
. This is found in the treaty of king Gourayam and the British East India Company.
History of Manipur
The History can be traced back to the founding of Imphal in the first century AD. Manipur represents the inhabitants who belong to the two racial groups: the Nagas and the Meiteis. The people who inhabited the hilly areas are known as the Nagas. The people who inhabited the valleys are called Meiteis. The political capital of Manipur is Imphal. The recorded history dates back to 900 AD. The country witnessed invasions from Myanmar (Burma). Later in 1826, the Treaty of Yandavo by Raja Jai Singh brought Manipur into India. At the end of the Indo-Burmese War there was a difference of opinion regarding the succession to the throne. The dispute was settled with the intervention of the British. During the World War II Imphal was occupied by the Japanese. On 21 January 1972 (after the Indian Independence) Manipur became a Union Territory.
Geography of Manipur
The land surface of Manipur is 22,347 sq km. About 90% of the land is hilly. Nagaland
in the North, Mizoram
in the South, Assam
in the West and Burma in the East surround Manipur. It has also an enjoyable climate almost throughout the year and free from the severity of both summer and winter. The major river of the land is known as Imphal after which, the capital city is named. The other rivers are the Iril, Thoubal, Irnag, Nambul etc. The important and the biggest fresh water lake is the Loktak Lake. Keibul Lamijao is the only floated national park located in Manipur.
Economy of Manipur
Manipur has several small-scale industrial units. A joint sector plant has been established for the manufacture of drugs and pharmaceuticals. Steel fabrication articles, electronic goods and plastic goods are being produced in the state. A cement plant has also been established in Manipur. Among other industries are spinning mill, ghee manufacturing unit and factories of similar kind. Training facilities has been provided to enable the men and woman to acquire technological capability and provide industries with trained manpower. Centres for electronic design, technology, plastic Engineering and Technology have been set up at Imphal.
There are 2.71 lakh looms in Manipur. Women are the main weavers here. The famous weavers belong to Wangkhei, Bamon Kampu, Kongba, Khongman, Utlou etc. the fabrics and shawls of Manipur are greatly in demand in the national and international market. Basketry is the popular occupation of the people as cane and bamboo are available in plenty. People also engage in pot making. Pottery culture is very old in Manipur.
Adminitration in Manipur
Earlier Manipur was an independent princely state and later it became a British protectorate. The state later emerged with India and was categorized as the 'C' group state. Presently it has 8 administrative units or districts. These are distributed as Valley Districts consisting of Bishnupur or Bishenpur, Imphal and Thoubal and Hils Districts includes Ukhrul, Senapati, Tamenglong, Churachandpur and Candel. Besides, there are nine other important towns and about 2089 villages in the state. It has six Autonomous District Councils:
* Tengnoura Autonomous District Council.
* Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council.
* Manipur North Autonomous District Council.
* Manipur South Autonomous District Council.
* Manipur East Autonomous District Council and
* Manipur West Autonomous District Council.
Demography of Manipur
The three major ethnic groups of Manipur are the Meiteis, the Meitei Pangals, the Nagas and the Kuki- Chins. The Meiteis inhabit in the valleys. The Meitei Pangals form a minority community. The Nagas and the Kuki Chins inhabit in the hills. People speak Tibeto- Burman.
The total population of Manipur is 2,721,756 as per the 2011 census. The male population is 1,369,764 and the female populace is 1,351,992. The male literacy rate is 86.49% and the female literacy rate is 73.17 according to 2100 census.
Festivals of Manipur
Manipur is a land of festivals. The different festivals celebrated by the people are: Lai Haroba
, Jatra, Ratha Jatra, Ramzan Eid, Kut, Gang-Ngai, Chumpha, Christmas, Cheiraoba
, Heikru Hidongba, Ningol Chakouba, Lui Ngai Ni, etc.
Education in Manipur
The Education Department has the authority of administration and inspection, framing of curriculum and syllabi and choice of textbooks. The Education Department of Manipur has four different entities as: Department of education that includes university and higher education, Department of educations, State Council of Educational Research and Training and the department of Adult Education. The University of Manipur came into existence on June 5, 1980. It is set up under the Manipur University Act, 1980 i.e. (Manipur Act No VIII of 1980). Manipur has two universities, which imparts quality education to students.