(Last Updated on : 07/04/2014)
Delhi is the largest metropolis in terms of area and the second largest in population in India. The National capital territory of Delhi includes the region of Noida, Faridabad
New Delhi, the capital of India, is one of the fastest growing cities in India and lies within the National capital territory. Located on the banks of Yamuna River
, Delhi is a home to Asia's largest planned residential colony which is called Dwaraka
sub city. With a total area of about 33,578 kms, Delhi is the National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly, Council of Ministers, Lieutenant Governor, and Chief Minister. The Parliament of India
, the Supreme Court of India
and the Rashtrapati Bhavan
are located in Delhi. There are seventy assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha
constituencies in Delhi.
History of Delhi
The history of Delhi
is rooted in mythology and is believed to be the site of Indraprastha
which was the capital of the Pandavas
in the Indian epic Mahabharata
. During the 3rd century B.C. Delhi was under the Maurya Empire
. Remnants of seven chief cities have been discovered in Delhi. Delhi has seen the rise and fall of many empires, which have left behind a surplus of monuments that are the magnificence and glory of past ages. In the 13th century, Delhi fell into the hands of the Delhi Sultanates and subsequently it came under the dominion of the Mughal Empire
. Delhi passed on to the hands of the British in 1803 AD. It was only in 1911, when the capital of British Empire was shifted from Kolkata
to Delhi and that Delhi got its present prestige. After independence also, a kind of self-rule was conferred on the capital but it largely remained a Chief Commissioner's government. In 1956, Delhi was converted into a Union territory and gradually a Lt. Governor replaced the Chief Commissioner. In 1991, the National Capital Territory Act was passed by the parliament and a system of diarchy (a form of government having two joint rulers) was introduced under which, the elected Government was given wide powers; except law and order which remained with the Central Government. The actual enforcement of the legislation came in 1993.
Geography of Delhi
Delhi is the largest city in India and is bordered on the east by the state of Uttar Pradesh
and on the north, west, and south by Haryana
. Delhi lies at an altitude of between 700 and 1,000 feet and covers an area of 1,485 square kilometres. Situated on the Yamuna River
(a tributary of the Ganges River
) Delhi is located in the northern part of India. It is a land locked city. The distance from the sea gives Delhi an extreme type of continental climate. The summers in Delhi are very hot and winters very cold. The temperature range varies from 45 degrees in summers to 4 degrees in winters. The winters are marked by mist and fog. The cold wave from the Himalayan mountains region
makes winters very chilly. In summers the heat wave is immense and adequate precaution has to be taken before going out in the hot summer afternoons.
Demography of Delhi
According to the 2011 estimation, the total population of Delhi is 16,753,235. The population density of Delhi is 11,297 persons per square kilometre. The literacy rate of Delhi is 89.38%.
The culture of Delhi is diverse in nature because since ancient times it has been a seat of power to many dynasties of India. Being a capital a lot of cultural amalgamation happens in Delhi. More than half the residents come from areas outside of the Delhi region. The culture of Delhi represents the culture of all the states of India in parts. In other words, it is a kind of synthesis and reflection of the culture of India, as a whole. Being the capital of India, New Delhi has also become the main centre of politics, from where all the decisions are made and policies passed. However, the city does have a history of its own which has made some impact on its cultural scenario. Religious festivals like Diwali
, Mahavir Jayanti
and Durga puja
are celebrated with great pomp and show in Delhi. Due to Delhi's large cosmopolitan and migrant population cuisines from all over India are available here but it excels in Punjabi and Mughal delicacies. A variety of Indian handicrafts and handlooms are noteworthy in the market places of Delhi.
Education of Delhi
The system of education in Delhi is administered by the NCT governments, the Director of Education or by Private organisations. There were 2,515 primaries, 635 middle, 504 secondary and 1,208 senior secondary schools in Delhi according to the report of 2005-06 report. There are reputed institutions for higher studies in Delhi and it includes 165 colleges, among them five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges. Delhi University and the Jawaharlal Nehru
University are among the renowned universities of Delhi. The private schools of Delhi are affiliated to the administering bodies. In the year 2004- 2005, 15.29 lakhs students were enrolled in primary schools, 8.22 lakhs in middle schools and 6.69 lakhs in secondary schools across Delhi. Female students represented 49% of the entirety enrolment.
Culture of Delhi
Administration of Delhi
With the formation of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) in July 2007, the boundaries of Delhi are expanded and included nine districts, 27 tehsils, 59 census towns, 165 villages and three statutory towns. The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), the New Delhi Municipal Committee (NDMC); and the Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB) are the governing bodies of Delhi. The National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi includes the areas of Noida, Gurgaon
, Greater Noida, Faridabad
forming it a federally administered union territory.
Delhi has four major settlement cities, which lie outside the National Capital Territory of Delhi. These are Gurgaon and Faridabad in Haryana
, and New Okhla Industrial Development Authority (NOIDA) and Ghaziabad, in Uttar Pradesh.
Delhi is distinguished into nine districts. Each district (division) is headed by a Deputy Commissioner and has three subdivisions. A Subdivision Magistrate heads each subdivision. All Deputy Commissioners report to the Divisional Commissioner. The District Administration of Delhi is the enforcing department for all kinds of State and Central Government policies and exercises decision-making powers over numerous other functionaries of the Government.
Economy of Delhi
Delhi is the largest commercial centre in the north India. The tertiary sector adds to 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary sector with 25.2% and primary sectors with 3.85% contribution. Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population showing a boost of 52.52% between 1991 and 2001. Delhi's unemployment rate lessened from 12.57% in 1999 and 2000 to 4.63% in 2003. In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with diverse employment exchange programmes in Delhi. Construction, health, power, telecommunications and community services, and real estate form essential parts of Delhi's financial system. Delhi has India's biggest and one of the fastest growing retail industries. As a consequence, land prices are flourishing and Delhi is at present ranked the 7th most expensive office hub in the world.