(Last Updated on : 15/01/2014)
Indian vegetation is considered to be one of the richest in the entire world. India is indeed one of the few countries in the world that possesses such varied vegetation. The distinct vegetative regions in India are classified according to their climatic factors and locations.
The Western Himalayan Mountains is one of the Indian vegetation that extends from Jammu & Kashmir
to Kumaon. This temperate zone produces a range from apples, cherries, strawberries, pears and peaches to walnuts, pea nuts, almonds, apricots and more. The rare, priceless saffron is also grown in this Kashmir valley. The eastern Himalayan region extending from Sikkim
to northernmost parts of West Bengal
boasts rich forests of Oaks, Birch, Laurels, Maples, Alder, Rhododendron
, Juniper and Dwarf Willows. Sikkim is a haven for highly colourful orchids.
The Indian vegetation in the tropical region of north-east India, comprising Assam
and lower regions of Arunachal Pradesh
are suitable for the cultivation of numerous fruits like Cherries, Plums, Squashes, Oranges and Pineapples. The Indo-Gangetic plains that stretch from eastern Rajasthan through Uttar Pradesh
and West Bengal are vast cultivable lands. The major crops here are rice, jute, wheat sugarcane, Bajra (pearl millets) Jowar
or rye and an infinite range of vegetables.
The Sundarbans in West Bengal is the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra River
and the area between high and low water marks mangrove trees adapted to the unusual estuarine condition of high salinity, lack of soil erosion and daily inundation by high tides. In the Thar Desert lying to the west of the country, the trees are short and corpulent, stunted by the scorching sun and the lack of moisture. The commonest vegetation growing in this region are Guar, Babul
, Reunjha and Keekar and numerous species of cacti, like Khejra, Kanju, Ak and Khajur.
The Deccan Plateau
is one of the largest Indian vegetation and comprises the entire tableland of the Indian peninsula. Interestingly, the black soil, which is spread over the entire Deccan Plateau and its offshoots of Maharashtra
, Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh
, makes these regions perfect for cotton cultivation. The elevation of the Plateau is also favorable to orange cultivation, which is carried out in the Nagpur
region of Maharashtra. The highly popular Sandalwood is an evergreen tree, which commonly grows in the dry, deciduous forests of the Deccan Plateau. It also grows in Karnataka
, Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh
The Malabar region is notable Indian vegetation that covers the excessively humid belt of mountain country parallel to the west coast of the Peninsula and produces several major commercial crops like coconut, betel nut (supari), black pepper
, rubber and cashew nut. The Western Ghats encompass only 5% of Indian vegetation, but are home to more than about 4,000 of the country's plant species of which 1800 are widespread. Nilgiris, a part of this mountain chain is also a key producer of tea and coffee. Indian Vegetation is being protected and guarded with utmost care, since it provides a huge amount of revenue and also ecological balance to the nation.