(Last Updated on : 15/12/2012)
Indo Aryan tribal language speakers are distributed and scattered over a huge geographical territory of the country. The speakers of this family of tribal language comprise over a total population of almost 491 million people. The northern, eastern, western and central portions of India are full with people who speak the Indo Aryan languages. There are almost 574 mother tongues in the Indo Aryan family of tribal languages. Some of the languages are supposed to have great literary traditions and activities. In the family of Indo Aryan tribal languages there is actually no dearth of philological literature.
Types of Indo Aryan Language
There are three main languages in the Indo Aryan family of languages and these are Bhili language
, Khandeshi language
and Halabi. These three languages have been categorized as tribal languages. They are mainly spread over several districts of states like Gujarat
, Madhya Pradesh
. In the Bhili language group there are almost 36 dialects that are spoken by the people. Some of the important mother tongues of this group are Boari, Bhilali, Barel, Chodhri, Dhodia, Garasi, Kokna or Kokni/ Kukna, Gamti, Pardhi, Mawchi, Wagdi and more.
Khandeshi group of language in the Indo Aryan family of tribal languages comprises almost five main mother tongues. This language is spoken by a total of almost 1.2 million persons. The third main language of this group of tribal language that is the Halbi or Halabi is spoken by over 5 lakh people in the states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. Thus, around 26 per cent of the total population of the country are the speakers of these major tribal languages belonging to the Indo Aryan family of languages.
Distribution of Indo Aryan Language
Research shows that in India, a total of 83 groups of tribal languages are identified. Out of which 3 belong to the Indo Aryan family. Kanauji is an Indo Aryan language that is spoken in several parts of Uttar Prades
h and its major dialect is Tirhari. Another prominent Indo Aryan tribal language is sometimes called 'Gypsy' language and is spoken by near about 60,000 people in areas of Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Its main dialect is kuchbandhi.
Kawari and Katkari languages belonging to the Indo Aryan tribal language family are spoken by people of areas of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra. In fact, in Raipur district
of Madhya Pradesh, number of people speaking this Indo Aryan tribal language is around 33 thousand. Khandesi is another Indo Aryan tribal language and its main dialects are Kunbi, Ahirani, Rangari, etc. It is spoken by the tribes of some parts of Gujarat and Maharashtra. Tribes of the state of Jammu and Kashmir
speak Kishtwari, belonging to the Indo Aryan group of tribal languages. Koch is spoken by tribes of Tripura
and in Cooch Behar
district of the state of West Bengal
. Konkani and Goanese are two very popular Indo Aryan tribal languages that are spoken in coastal areas of Maharashtra and Goa
Hence, it is proved by the fact that the major regions where the Indo Aryan tribal languages include states of eastern, central and western India.