(Last Updated on : 14/02/2013)
Jharkhand occupies 28833 sq metres and its capital is Ranchi
. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar
state on November 15, 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh
to the west, Orissa
to the south, and West Bengal
to the east. Some of the other major cities and industrial centres are Jamshedpur
, Bokaro Steel City
, Sindri, Jharkhand, Giridih District
, Gumla District
once a part of West Bengal. Jharkhand is also popularly known as Vananchal (vana plus anchal, meaning land of woods).
History of Jharkhand
For a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained buried. During the age of sixteen Mahajanpadas
around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. Later it came under the hands of the Mughals. Muslims and the British rulers. After Independence, the Jharkhand Party grew politically stronger but the commissions later examining the demands for a separate Jharkhand State rejected it one after another. There Jharkhand emerged on November 15,2000 as a new state in India.
Geography of Jharkhand
Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau
, which is the source of the Koel River
, Damodar River
, Brahmani River
, Kharkai River, and Subarnarekha River
, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support populations of Royal Bengal Tiger
and Asian Elephant
. Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones. Weather remains cool in most areas of Jharkhand, especially Ranchi District
, Gumla, Netarhat
. Jharkhand has a rich variety of Flora and Fauna. The National Parks and the Zoological Gardens located in the state of Jharkhand present a panorama of this variety.
Demography of Jharkhand
The Population of Jharkhand, according to the 2011 census stands at about 32 million, making it the 13th most populated state in India. Jharkhand makes up about 3.5% of the country's population a figure that was about three percent compared in the Population Census in India in the year 2001. The state is spread over an area of about 79000 sq. km. one of the smaller states in the country in terms of area. The density of population per sq. km. is about 414. The state has a growth rate of about 22 percent, which slightly exceeds the national growth rate of about 17%. The population of the state is raising considerably more due to the lack of education and lack of understanding about family planning. The literacy rate in the state is about 67 percent. It is a figure that needs instant correction and steps to do so need to be put into effect immediately. The sex ratio in Jharkhand is about 940. The statistics in the Jharkhand Census 2011 reveal facts that can be instrumental in planning for a better development plan for the state. The literacy rate in Jharkhand has seen upward trend and is 67.63 percent as per 2011 population census. Of that, male literacy stands at 78.45 percent while female literacy is at 56.21 percent.
Education in Jharkhand
The literacy rate in Jharkhand as per 2011 census is 62.18 percent and female literacy rate is 49.43 percent. Jharkhand has a network of government and privately run schools. The medium of instruction in schools is English with Hindi language
and the Sanskrit language
as second language. After 10 years of schooling, students can join 2 years of Intermediate course (or +2 courses) in Arts, Science and Commerce. This is followed by 3 years of degree courses (graduation) or 4 years of engineering degree.
A number of non-technical colleges are located in bigger cities as well as in small towns. The Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) in particular, offer popular 3 year diploma courses. Jharkhand has 3 Universities namely Ranchi University
, Sidhhu Kanhu University
and Vinoba Bhave University
Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi
, National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur
, and the Indian School Of Mines are famous engineering colleges. National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology and B.I.T Sindri are among one of the oldest engineering colleges in eastern India established in 1949. There are three medical colleges in Jharkhand namely Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences at Ranchi, Medical College Jamshedpur and Pataliputra
Medical College and Hospital at Dhanbad. The famous B-school Xavier Labour Relations Institute is at Jamshedpur. It's PMIR programme is regarded the best in the entire Asia-Pacific region. There are many newspapers like Ranchi Express and the Prabhat Khabar are the main newspapers, published from the state capital. All India Radio
is the only Radio station in Jharkhand and covers the entire state. Doordarshan
is the national television broadcaster that is also available in almost all parts of the state. "Johar Disum Khabar" is only fortnightly newspaper that is published in local tribal and regional language from Ranchi. "Johar Sahiya" is a monthly magazine
Administration of Jharkhand
A Governor, who is appointed by the President of India, heads the state. However, the real executive power rests with the Chief Minister and the cabinet. The political party or the coalition of political parties having majority in the Legislative Assembly forms the Government. The administrative head of the State is called Chief Secretary, under whose jurisdiction a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service / State Civil Services function. A Chief Justice heads the Judiciary and Jharkhand has a separate High Courts of India, located in Ranchi. Jharkhand is one of the thirteen states in which the Naxalite rebels have considerable influence.
Economy of Jharkhand
The economy of Jharkhand is mostly concentrated in agriculture and mineral extraction. The principal food grains crops are paddy, wheat
. The economy centres round the various industries housed in the region. The business and economy in Jharkhand seems to be a vital component of the administrative set up of Jharkhand; it is this aspect of the Government of Jharkhand that is helping the Government to meet up to the challenges of this industrial world.
In the hemisphere of the business and economy of Jharkhand, it can be said that Jharkhand houses two major steel plants in India. The steel plants at Bokaro Steel Plant
and the Tata Iron and Steel Company are the two major Iron and Steel industries housed in Jharkhand. These steel plants largely contribute towards the economy of not only Jharkhand but also the rest of India. Other important industries are Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company, Sriram Bearing, Usha Martin, Indian Tube Company and so on. The state is abundantly rich in minerals-copper, coal, iron, manganese, mica, chromite, bauxite, etc., and has the potential of becoming one of the most prosperous states of India.
The installed capacity of power in Jharkhand is 2,590 Mega Watt. This includes 420 Mega Watt (Tenughat Thermal Power Station), 840 Mega Watt (Patratu Thermal Power Station), 130 Mega Watt (Sikkidri Hydel) and 1,200 Mega Watt (DVC, Thermal/Hydel). The prospects of capacity addition in both the thermal and hydel power sectors of various power stations are 4,736 Mega Watt. This includes 686 Mega Watt hydel power generations.
Culture of Jharkhand
The culture of Jharkhand has earned itself an important place. There are important cultural festivals in Jharkhand are Sarhul, Karma, Sohrai, Badna, Tusu, Id, X-mas, Holi, and Dussehra are celebrated with pomp and glamour. In sports arena, Jharkhand contributed at a large with Mahendra Singh Dhoni
. Some of the popular players of the state are Jaipal Singh
, a former Indian hockey captain and Olympian and Manohar Topno, Vimal Lakra, currently playing for the Indian Hockey team. Mahendra Singh Dhoni is the captain of Indian cricket team. Another upcoming sportsperson is Saurabh Sunil Tiwary of Jamshedpur who is a left hand batsman of Indian cricket team and represented Mumbai Indians from the 2008 Indian Premier League