Indian Soil - Informative & researched article on Indian Soil
 Indianetzone: Largest Free Encyclopedia of India with thousand of articlesGeography of India

 Art & Culture|Entertainment|Health|Reference|Sports|Society|Travel
Forum  | Free E-magazine  | RSS Feeds  
History of India|Indian Temples|Indian Museums|Indian Literature|Geography of India|Flora & Fauna|Indian Purans|Indian Philosophy|Indian Administration|Indian Languages|Education
Home > Reference > Geography of India > Indian Soil
Indian Soil
Indian soil is mainly divided into four different groups which include red soil, alluvial soil, laterite soil and regur soil. The history of Indian soil dates back to the prehistoric period.
More on Indian Soil (14 Articles)
 Indian SoilIndian Soil is among the most wide-ranging component in the geography of India. The inhabitants of India largely count on the soil of the country for their survival. Soil is but a layer of decaying organic matter and broken rock particles on the earth surface, which is necessary for plant growth. Soil bears all vital nutrients which help in the development and growth of trees and plants. Soils are of different types, and each of them differs in their texture and nature. Several powers of nature, like running water and wind and alteration of temperature, add to the development of soil. Organic and chemical alterations taking place within the soil layer are likewise very essential. The soil may be economized by superior agricultural practices, reducing persistence of grazing and afforestation.

Types of Soil in India
Indian soils are mainly divided into four broad groups. These Indian soil types consist of, Alluvial soil, Red soil, Regur soil or Black soil and Laterite soil.

Alluvial soil:
Indian Soil Alluvial soil is formed by accumulated sediments transferred by the rivers and rapids, thus it is amongst the most fertile soils. They generally lack humus and nitrogen and loaded with potassium. They form around the lower courses of most rivers and particularly all over the Indo-Gangetic Plains. This soil covers an area of 15 lakh square kilometres in India and mainly contributes in the development of agriculture.

Red Soil:
Red soils lack nitrogenous material, phosphoric acid and organic matter and are rich in iron. It is formed by the breakdown of igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks. It is mainly seen in the district of Periyar and Salem in the state of Tamil Nadu. In India, red soil is also found in several other regions including Madhya Pradesh, Southern Karnataka, Maharashtra, Eastern Rajasthan, West Bengal and other states of North-East.

Regur soil:
Regur soils are black in colour and are also known as black soils. Since they are perfect for growing cotton, they are also called cotton soils, in addition to their local terminology of regur soils. These soils are most characteristic of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region, spread over the north-west.

Laterite soil:
Laterite soil is rich in aluminium and iron, formed in wet and hot tropical areas. Almost all laterites are rusty-red due to the presence of iron oxides. It is prepared by the long lasting and intensive weathering of the parent rock. Lateritic soils are also abundant in area along the edge of the plateau in the east, covering small parts of the states of Tamil Nadu and Orissa and a small portion of the Chota Nagpur Plateau in the north and Meghalaya in north-east.

Other than these, two other soil types are also found in the Indian subcontinent, which are Desert soil and Mountain soil.

Desert Soil:
Desert soils are basically of sandy texture. Desert soils are generally of brown, light brown or reddish colour. Due to the arid conditions, leaching of soil is almost absent in the desert soils and thus evaporation is quite rapid. Rajasthan Desert is covered with sand at most of the places.

Mountain Soil:
Mountain soils are mainly found in hill slopes and are formed by deposition of organic matter from woodlands and forests. Mountains soils are mostly found in the Himalayan regions, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Kashmir and also in the Peninsula, Eastern Ghats and the summits of Sahyadris.

Cotton grows very well in drier regions of 'black cotton soil' of the Deccan Plateau. Normally, the major producers of cotton are Maharashtra and Gujarat. Cotton also grows well in the Indian soil of the states like Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. Wheat grows well on the loamy soils of Northern plains covering Punjab, Haryanaand western parts of Uttar Pradesh, in that order. It also grows well in the black soils of the Madhya Pradesh state. Wheat also thrives in the soils of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

The basic Indian food crop is Rice and there are various types of Indian soil that suits Rice cultivation and this crop is grown in several regions in India. India alone has about 45 million hectares of area which produces on an average 93 million metric tons of rice since 2001. Cultivation of rice is carried into almost all regions of India having abundant moisture and required warmth necessary for its growth, primarily in subtropical region. Rice is grown in India in various kinds of soil. It is grown in such varied soil conditions that it is difficult to point out the Indian soil on which it cannot be grown. The Indian soil having good water retention capacity and good amount of clay and organic matter are considered ideal for rice cultivation. Indian soils having a pH range between 5.5 and 6.5 are also best for rice cultivation. Over the years sugar has turned into a substantial ingredient of regular food intake. India boasts the largest surface area under sugarcane and its production is also the highest in the world. Amongst the Indian soils, sugarcane grows best in a well-drained productive soil, and abundance of fertilizers, manure, with hot, and humid climate and rainfall of approximately 100 centimeters. Similarly, different crops grow at its best in different soils.

(Last Updated on : 11/01/2014)
E-mail this Article | Post a Comment
Recently Updated Articles in Geography of India
Vadodara Airport
Vadodara Airport is a civilian airport located in the north-east of Vadodara, Gujarat in the suburb of Harni.
Porbandar Airport
Porbandar Airport is a public airport in Porbandar, Gujarat.
Himalayan Mountain Range
Himalayan Mountain Range is the highest mountain range in Asia that separates India from the Tibetan plateau. It is known as the King of mountains.
Dibrugarh Airport
Dibrugarh Airport is a domestic airport located in the Dibrugarh city in the Indian state of Assam.
Forum on Geography of India
Free E-magazine
Subscribe to Free E-Magazine on Reference
Indian Soil - Informative & researched article on Indian Soil
Contact Us   |   RSS Feeds
Copyright © 2008 Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. All rights reserved including the right to reproduce the contents in whole or in part in any form or medium without the express written permission of
Jupiter Infomedia Ltd.