(Last Updated on : 28/11/2014)
Bankura district is located in the western part of the state of West Bengal. It is a part of Bardhaman
Division of the State and is included in the area known as "Rarh" in Bengal. Bankura district is situated between 22 degrees and 38 minutes North latitude and 86 degrees and 36 minutes East to 87 degrees 47 minutes East longitude. The Damodar River
flows along the Northern boundary of the district. Bankura district is bounded by Bardhaman district
in the north, Purulia district
in the west and Paschim Medinapure district in the south.
The seasons in Bankura are generally distributed as hot summer (April-May), monsoon (June-September) and 'Cold season' (November-February). The humidity is usually medium to high throughout the year and the rainfall, though not heavy, is usually well distributed. The average annual rainfall received by the district is around 1300 mm. The rainy months are generally July and August. 21.5 percent of the total geographical area of the district is made up of forest land, covering a total of 148177 hectares. Net cultivable area of the district is 4.30 lakh hectares.
In the Bankura district
, there are two Agro-Climatic zones which have been classified based on climatic conditions, rainfall, temperature, humidity and altitude accompanied by complex land forms, hydrology and soil combinations. These two climatic zones are the Undulating Red and lataritic zone and the Vindhyan Alluvial zone. The former is tropical dry, sub-humid zone having rainfall ranging from 1100 to 1400 mm and a maximum temperature of 45 degree Celsius and a minimum temperature of 100 degree Celsius normally. This region is primarily made up of an undulating landform with mounds and valleys, exhibiting different grades of laterisation process in soil formation. The soils are well drained, susceptible to soil erosion due to rapid external drainage or run off, and the soil reaction ranges from acidic in ridges and near neutral in valleys. Organic carbon content, phosphate and patas are low. Agriculture in this region is mostly rain dependant.
Prevalence of moisture stress on standing Kharif Crop in late monsoon period is very common.
In Vindhyan Alluvial Zone, soil in general is deep, texturally medium to fine, mostly acidic in soil reaction, moderately well drained, ground water deeply placed, and low in bases, organic matter, phosphate and medium in patas. Major part of the region harvests more than one crop utilizing canal irrigation as well as ground water.
Among the major crops grown here are rice
and vegetables which occupy a major portion of the total cropped area. Among different oilseeds, rape and mustard
, and sesamum are two important oilseeds grown in this district Sesamum is cultivated in 3 seasons while rape and mustard are cultivated during Rabi season. Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in the district and crop is cultivated in assured / limited irrigated areas. About 46 percent of the net cropped area is under irrigation. Most of the Pre-Kharif and Kharif rice are grown in rain-fed conditions. The gross cropped area is about 6 lakh hectares.