History of Odisha
Odisha has a glorious history of its own that has a rich culture and heritage dating back to more than two thousand years. Odisha was known in different names in different periods from Mahabharata, like Kalinga, Utkal or Odradesha. Kalinga had made its mark in the Indian history during the Nanda dynasty who ruled the kingdom of Magadha. In ancient times the people of Odisha had made contact with the South-East Asian kingdoms and posed a serious threat to the Maurya Empire. Ashoka, the Mauryan king, invaded Kalinga in 261 B.C. and conquered Odisha. Odisha reached at its height in medieval Eastern Ganga Dynasty and later it became the part of British India.
Geography of Odisha
Odisha is located between the parallels of 17.49 degree North and 22.34 degree North latitudes and meridians of 81.27 degree East and 87.29 degree East longitudes. It has a coastline of about 450 kms. It extends over an area of 155,707 square kms accounting about 4.87 of the total area of India. Odisha is situated on the coast along the Bay of Bengal and stands for its ancient glory and modern endeavour.
Demography of Odisha
According to the 2011 census of India, the total population of Odisha is 41,947,358. The male population is 21,20,1678 and the female population is 20,745,680. Most residents of Odisha communicate through the local Oriya Language, though English Language is also used as an official language.
Culture of Odisha
Odisha is enriched with rich cultural history. The cuisine of Odisha is simple and delicious that mainly includes delicacies of prawns, crabs, fish, and chicken. The people of Odisha uses curd as an essential source of flavour. Patachitra, palm-leaf painting, silver filigree, appliques, sand art and sculptures are the cultural pillars of Odisha. The traditional east Indian dance of Odisha is 'Odissi' which is known for its beauty, stylishness and elegance. The complex parody and rhythm of this dance form mix together giving birth to various graceful expressions. The 'Ghumra' dance is one of the most significant dance songs of the state. Other dances practised are 'Chhau', 'Mahari' and 'Gotipua'.
Education in Odisha
According to census 2011, the overall literacy rate is 73.45 percent. The male literacy is 82.40 percent and female literacy is 64.36 percent. Some of the important educational institutions located in Odisha are All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Central University of Odisha, IIT at Bhubaneshwar, National Institute of Science Education and Research, National Law University, Ravenshaw University and numerous others.
Administration of Odisha
General Administration includes the Nodal Department for higher Civil Services i.e. All India Services and Odisha Administrative Service (OAS Class-I and above). The department deals with the entire range of personnel management in the Government- recruitment, training, performance evaluation, promotion, discipline, placement, service conditions etc. Some important institutions associated with the department include Odisha Public Service Commission (O.P.S.C), Staff Selection Commission (S.S.C) for recruitment; Odisha Administrative Tribunal for dispensation of justice to Government employees; Gopabandhu Academy of Administration for training; and Vigilance Department for correctional measures.
Economy of Odisha
Odisha is dependent on agricultural products. Here rice, oilseeds, jute and sugarcane are produced. The economy of the state is mainly dependent upon sectors like agriculture, fishing, art and crafts, industrial sectors and the emerging IT sector. Rourkela Steel Plant, Sunabeda and NALCO are the secondary stake holders in the economy.
Tourism in Odisha
Odisha has many tourism destinations like Nandankanan Zoo, Chilka Lake, Bhitarkanika National Park, Jagannath Temple, Konark Temple, Simlipal Tiger Reserve, Puri Sea beach, Gopalpur-on-Sea, Konark Beach and many others.