Further, the geography of Barabanki District is also characterised by river systems and water resources. The district is well fed by Ghaghara River, Gomti River and Kalyani River with their tributaries for major part of the year. Although some of them dry out during summers and create havoc during rainy season by causing floods. Ghaghara River is the most important river of the district. It, being a mountain river, is the main resource of water round the year. Ghaghara flows from the northern boundary of Barabanki District to the south east. Some portion of Tehsil Fatehpur and some portion of Tehsil Ram Sanehi Ghat are on its banks. Ghaghara forms the northern boundary separating Barabanki from Bahraich and Gonda. Gomti River is the second important river in the district; being a river with its origin in the plains itself flows, throughout the year. Gomti flows from Lucknow into this district and covers the northern part of tehsil Haidergarh and some portion of tehsil Ram Sanehi Ghat. Kalyani River is a small river of local origin. It flows through the district along with its tributaries, covering most of central portion of the district.
Geography of Barabanki District comprises huge part of the plains of the state and thus conforms to the same geological sequence as the plain itself. The soil structure of the district is composed of alluvial soil. The upper belt is called 'Uparhar' and the soil texture is yellowish clay. The basin land of the rivers is mostly composed of sandy soil, and the land adjacent to the rivers is sandy loam. The only mineral resource found in the district is sand, which is available in sufficient quantity on river banks, and is used in construction works. Moreover, Barabanki District is also noted for its deposits of brick earth.
Interestingly, according to one of the sayings Barabanki District got its name due to excessive forests. However, with the passage of time, pressure of the increasing population and the need to grow more food ultimately became the reason for clearing of the majority of forest cover for cultivation. As of today, majority of the forest cover in Barabanki District is on uneven landscape and consists of a mixed variety of vegetation mainly bushes. The forests are small and scattered. The total area under forests is approximately 5308 hectares. Most of the forest cover is on the banks of the river Gomti and Kalyani.