(Last Updated on : 31/01/2012)
Art and Architecture of Mughal Art have been successful in creating huge aura among the art lovers. The splendour of Mughal art always appeals to the aesthetic spirit of all art enthusiasts. The subtlety of the finesse and the dazzle of the aura associated with the artistic achievements calls for a keen interest in the subject.
Under the Mughals (1526-1858) India grew into a prolific centre of cultural cultivation, literary pursuit and architectural marvel, comparable to the Iran under the Safavids.
A fundamental feature of Mughal art was manuscript-illumination. A noteworthy example is Persian miniature painting. One of such painting shows a small figure of Akbar
, holding a flower and carrying a sword by his side.
The presence of the flower and the sword is very symbolic. Flower represents calmness and peace-loving attributes of Akbar, while the sword speaks for his royal origin, blue-blood and inherent bravery. These Mughul paintings were usually invested with rich imagery and profound meanings. During Humayun`s rule, the intricate illustration of Amir Hamza, a fabulous narrative produced 1400 paintings on cloth were conducted by expert Persian painters.
Building style flourished under the Mughal emperors from the mid 16th to the 17th century. The Mughal period marked a striking revival of Islamic architecture in northern India, where Persian and Indian provincial styles were fused to produce works of great refinement. White marble and red sandstone were favoured material. The mausoleum built to commemorate Humayun
was probably the first great Mughal architecture. The tomb is laid down in a garden with octagonal chambers linked to an exquisite archway and with kiosks, cupolas and pinnacles affixed to it. The eminent Persian architect, Mirza Miyak Ghiyas, gave shape to it. The use of double dome, and archway inside a rectangular fronton (arena), and park like surroundings are typical of the Shah Jahan
period, when Mughal design reached its zenith.
The Fatehpur Sikhri, built in 1571, is a wonderful manifestation of a beautiful blend of Christain, Hindu, Persian, Buddhist and Jain architectural influences, besides being an Islamic artistry. The building reflects Akbar`s design of making it a House of Worship, for the syncretic religion "
The Panch Mahal, the tallest tower in the premises of the Mughal Palace, and the Diwan-i-Khas are elegant architectural constructions. Akbar promoted the writings of literary figures like Abul Fazl composing informative texts like Ain-I-Akbari and Akbarnama. The "Lilabati", an enlightening work on mathematics by Faizi, casts light on the Mughals` in depth knowledge of the discipline. Even the "Memoirs" of Babur
, a comprehensive literature of human history received its Persian version from the famous Abdur Rahim Khan is and important literary development of Akbar`s regime.
prioritized the portraiture of events from his own life, scientific study of the flora and the fauna above manuscript-illumination. Mansur and Manohar were his favourite painters. The fascination for nature`s beauty is demonstrated in the creation of the gorgeous Shalimar Bagh, one of his most beautiful gardens, on the heavenly banks of the Dal Lake
Architectural excellences like the five-tiered tomb of his father, Akbar
, the white marble magic in Ajmer
and other opulent marble formations soothes the eye. The acme of perfection of Mughal architecture is the Taj Mahal
(made from 1628-1658), set on the banks of the river Yamuna
. This romantic structure, all the more divine-looking in a moonlit night, is vocal of the emotional intensity in the perpetual perennial love of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz.
In 1638, Shah Jahan declared Delhi as the capital, and authenticated his decision with the foundation of the historic Red Fort
. Another testimony of artistic grandeur is the ravishing peacock throne, which is itself beauty personified.
Artistic ventures started experiencing decline since the orthodox rule of Aurangzeb.
However, the Mughals never perished into the void of oblivion .Their artistic richness continues to enchant admirers forever.