Periyar E. V. Ramasamy strongly believed that the Muslims and Christians were abiding by this role, but Hindu religion remained totally unsuitable for progress in society. It appeared to him that government did not belong to the people, but it was in a "topsy-turvy" manner, the people were for the government. He absolutely attributed this condition to the state of social system contrived for advantage of a small group of people.
One of the major areas of Periyar E. V. Ramasamy focuses on up-gradation and upliftment of rural population. In a booklet known as Village Periyar plead for rural reform. At that very time, rural India still formed the largest part of Indian subcontinent, in spite of ongoing process of urbanization. Hence, the difference between the urban and rural had meant an economic and social dilapidation for rural inhabitants. Periyar E. V. Ramasamy also wanted to eradicate the idea of "village" as a differentiating word among places, just as idea of "outcast" among social groups. He also strongly backed for a location where neither the name nor situation or its condition implies differences among people. Further, he also encouraged for urbanization of villages by providing public facilities like schools, libraries, radio stations, roads, bus transport, and police stations.
Periyar also felt that a tiny number of cunning people also created caste differences in order to dominate over society. Hence he also emphasized the view that people must look to develop self respect and learn to analyse propositions rationally. Periyar E. V. Ramasamy also took the initiative of explaining that caste system in South India is due to Indo-Aryan influence linked with the arrival of Brahmins from the north. Ancient Tamil Nadu which is actually a part of Tamilakkam, had a different stratification of society in four or five region, determined by natural surrounding and also adequate means of living. He also mentions that animals, birds and worms are considered to be devoid of logic or differences of high and low in their own species.