(Last Updated on : 24-05-2012)
The Princely State of Indore
, also known as Indaur, was amongst main states during the rule of the British Empire in India
. During the early 19th century, the region was appointed as one of the princely states of India under the indirect rule of the British administration. Presently Indore is the headquarters and the biggest city of the district of Indore in Madhya Pradesh
state, India. It is situated around 190 km towards the west Bhopal, which is the capital of the state. The princely state of Indore covered a total area of 9,934.18 sq m and comprised of a total population of 1,513,966 in the year 1941. The state was under the administrative control of the Indore Agency, which was incorporated as a part of the Central India Agency
. Indore state was administered by the native rulers, also identified as Indian Princes by the British, who were under the indirect control of the British authorities. The ruler of the state held the title of Maharaja Holkar.
The Princely State of Indore was honoured as one of the salute states of India with a gun salute of 19 guns. The courts of the princely state implemented full civil and criminal jurisdiction. The native Holkar rulers took charge of the administration of the state and were supported by a Council of Ministers. The legislative council of Indore state had a majority of elected members as of 1940. The original currency of the state was replaced by the British tender in the year 1902.
Location of Princely State of Indore
The princely state of Indore was reigned over by the Holkar of Indore, which included around 80 distinctive blocks of areas and were spread throughout the western region of the Central India Agency. The state was also intertwined with the territories of other Rajput and Maratha princes. In 1947, Indore state consisted of 2 territorial divisions, namely Nimar and Malwa. The territory of Nimar was segregated into the districts of Nemawar and Nimar; whereas Malwa incorporated the districts of Ramapura Bhanpura, Mahidpur and Indore. Eventually these 5 districts are further subdivided into 25 mahals.
The princely state of Indore was bordered by princely state of Gwalior in the north; by the states of Dewas, Bhopal
and the British Central Provinces
in the east; by the British district of Khandesh in the south; and by the princely states of Dhar, Barwani
in the west. Indore or Indaur state included around 3,710 villages and 14 towns in the year 1941.
History of Princely State of Indore
The founders of the state of Indore were the ancestors of the zamindars of the territory that was scattered along the banks of Narmada River
to the boundaries of Rajputana. Their headquarters was located at the village of Kampel. During the Mughal era, the ruling members of the family were granted the title of Chaudhari and consequently they established their assertion on the region. Later the Holkars bestowed the title of Rao Raja upon the family. The Maratha Maharajas of the Holkar dynasty reigned over the territory of Indore state. Malhar Rao Holkar, the founder of the dynasty, was conferred the control of Malwa Maratha armies in the year 1724; and later in 1733, he was appointed as the Maratha governor of the entire region.
Malhar Rao Holkar III ascended the royal throne of the princely state of Indore on 2nd November 1818. As he was still a minor at the time, he ruled under the guidance of Tantia Jog who was appointed as his Diwan. In the same year, the Holkar rulers were were defeated by the British forces in the Third Anglo Maratha War
and the region came under the dominion and control of the British East India Company
. After the defeat in the Battle of Mahidpur, the Cantonment town of Mhow was taken over by the British authorities through the signing of the treaty of Mandsaur. The treaty also ordered that the capital of the state of Holkar would be relocated to Indore from Maheshwar.
Martand Rao succeeded Malhar Rao Holkar III and officially ascended the royal throne of the state on 17 January 1834. He was replaced by the nephew of Yashwant Rao, named Hari Rao Holkar, who ascended to the throne on 17 April 1834. After his death, Khanderao Holkar, his adopted son, was officially installed as the monarch of the state on 13 November 1843. He was succeeded by Tukojirao Holkar II on 27 June 1844. During the great revolt of 1857, Tukojirao supported the British East India Company. He appointed T. Madhava Rao as the Diwan of Indore in the year 1872. Tukojirao Holkar II was succeeded by Shivaji Rao, his eldest son, after his death on 17th June 1886.
Yashwant Rao Holkar II reigned over the princely state of Indore from the year 1926 to 1948, briefly after the independence of the country in 1947. After the withdrawal of the British on 15th August 1947, the native ruler acceded his state to the newly formed Union of India
, also known as the Dominion of India. Later the Indore state, along with several other adjacent Indian princely states, was incorporated as a district of the Indian state of Madhya Bharat
. Indore was appointed the summer capital of the newly formed state. On 1st November 1956, Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh
state and Bhopal
became its capital.
Rulers of Princely State of Indore
The following list mentions the chronology of the Holkar Maharajas of Indore-
* Malhar Rao Holkar I (2 November 1731- 19 May 1766)
* Malerao Holkar (23 August 1766 - 5 April 1767)
* Ahilyabai Holkar (27 March 1767- 13 August 1795)
* Tukojirao Holkar I (13 August 1795- 29 January 1797)
* Kashirao Holkar (29 January 1797- 1798)
* Yeshwantrao Holkar I (1798- 27 October 1811)
* Malharrao Holkar III (27 October 1811- 27 October 1833)
* Martandrao Holkar (17 January 1834- 2 February 1834)
* Harirao Holkar (17 April 1834- 24 October 1843)
* Khanderao Holkar III (13 November 1843- 17 February 1844)
* Tukojirao Holkar II (27 June 184 - 17 June 1886)
* Shivajirao Holkar (17 June 1886- 31 January 1903)
* Tukojirao Holkar III (31 January 1903- 26 February 1926)
* Yeshwantrao Holkar II (26 February 1926- 1948)