State of Uttar Pradesh
The state of Uttar Pradesh is located in the northern part of India. There is variance in the land or geographical terrain of Uttar Pradesh. A significant portion of this state is dedicated to natural resources. As per estimations, the area occupied by forest is about 16620 square kilometers. The state has exquisite landscapes, forest-vistas, meandering rivers, waterfalls and a plethora of endangered birds and animals. Sustenance of biodiversity is imperative in any part of the world and Uttar Pradesh is not an exception in this regard. Therefore, the state houses a number of eco parks or protected areas. More specifically, the state has one national park and 25 wildlife sanctuaries. They have been established to provide protection to endangered biodiversity of the state. The Bombay Natural History Society has declared some bird sanctuaries as vital bird areas in the state.
Eco Parks of Uttar Pradesh
Dudhwa National Park is the only national park in Uttar Pradesh. Some of the wildlife sanctuaries in the state are Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary, Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary, Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary, Mahavir Swami Wildlife Sanctuary and National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary. Some of the bird sanctuaries are Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary, Okhala Bird Sanctuary, Lakh Bahosi Bird Sanctuary, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Bird Sanctuary and Bakhira Bird Sanctuary. These eco parks are given below.
National Park in Uttar Pradesh
Dudhwa National Park is located in the Terai region of Uttar Pradesh, more specifically, on the Indo-Nepal border in Lakhimpur Kheri district. Globally, this national park can be pinpointed at coordinates 28 degrees 30.5 minutes north and 80 degrees 40.8 minutes east. This national park was established in the year 1977. In the year 1987, the park was declared a tiger reserve and was brought under the ‘Project Tiger’. The Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary, the Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and the Dudhwa National Park, together form the ‘Dudhwa Tiger Reserve’. Dudhwa National Park is spread over an area of about 490.3 square kilometers (189.3 sq mi). It has a buffer zone of about 190 square kilometers (73 sq mi). It has reserved forest areas in the northern and southern sides. This national park is characterized by a highly diverse and productive Terai ecosystem. This ecosystem is suitable for a large number of endangered species and species of tall wet grasslands.
Fauna of Dudhwa National Park
Dudhwa National Park is a home to animals like tiger, swamp deer, sambar deer, barking deer, spotted deer, hog deer, Indian rhinoceros, jackal and leopard. Hispid hare was earlier thought to be extinct. It was rediscovered in Dudhwa National Park in the year 1984.
Avifauna of Dudhwa National Park
Over 350 species of birds receive shelter in Dudhwa National Park. It is important to note that Dudhwa mostly has the population of aquatic avian fauna. They have been traced around Dudhwa’s lakes like the Banke Tal. Some of the avifaunal species of Dudhwa National Park are swamp francolin, great slaty woodpecker and Bengal florican. A range of migratory birds visit Dudhwa, during winter seasons. Some of them are painted storks, black and white necked storks and kingfishers.
Wildlife Sanctuaries in Uttar Pradesh
Wildlife sanctuaries in Uttar Pradesh are reserved areas, restricted to the conservation of animals and birds. Human activities like harvesting of timber and collecting minor forest products are permitted in these sanctuaries, along with controlled biotic interference. There is also allowance of private ownership right, so long it does not cause any harm to the species sheltered in the sanctuary area. Another important feature of a wildlife sanctuary is that its boundary is not well defined.
Fauna of Wildlife Sanctuaries in Uttar Pradesh
Wildlife sanctuaries in Uttar Pradesh are home to a variety of wild animals. Some of them are leopards, blackbucks, swamp deer, hog deer, barking deer, chital, nilgai, wild boar, porcupine and chinkara. These sanctuaries also preserve reptiles like gharial and python.
Avifauna of Wildlife Sanctuaries in Uttar Pradesh
Wildlife sanctuaries in Uttar Pradesh are diverse in terms of bird species. They house both resident and migratory birds. Some of the birds preserved in these sanctuaries are common water birds, lesser florican, Bengal florican, Indian purple moorhen, white-necked stork, pheasant-tailed jacana, bronze winged jacana, sarus crane, great Indian horned owl, jungle owlet and colorful woodpecker.
Tourism in Uttar Pradesh Eco Parks
Uttar Pradesh eco parks serve as popular tourist destinations. A large number of nature lovers from all over the world, come and visit these eco parks, every year. They get attracted to these parks because of the extraordinary scenic beauty and also the rich variety of biodiversity. These nature lovers can spend quality time in the lap of nature.
Eco tourism in Uttar Pradesh eco parks is being promoted by the government of Uttar Pradesh. It is a step towards exhibiting the richness of Uttar Pradesh, with the active participation of local communities. More specifically, eco tourism is an initiative to intimate the visitors with the importance of recycling, curbing consumption and indulging in cultural resource conservation. Eco-tourism is an attempt to inculcate a form of responsible tourism in the tourists.