(Last Updated on : 28/09/2015)
Eco parks in India shelter preserve and enhance the natural resources of the country. India is a vast country with vast biodiversity. India is considered as the seventh largest country in the world by geographical area and India's wildlife is counted among the richest ones in the world. These numerous flora and fauna species of India were left unguarded and unprotected for several years and as a result, several species became nearly extinct in India. This prompted the naturalists and environmentalists of India to take initiatives to preserve these species. It was mainly because of their efforts, numerous eco parks came into existence in India, during the first few decades of the twentieth century. India has a large number of eco parks at present and they are mainly working for preserving the rich variety of flora and fauna species.
An eco park is actually a protected area that uses ecological landscape features for reducing watering and maintenance, while enhancing wildlife and human values. Being a huge country and rich in natural resources, India is home to numerous eco parks that spread across all parts of the country. The states like Madhya Pradesh
, West Bengal
etc are some of the Indian states that house the highest numbers of eco parks in India. All these states are also famous for having the richest variety of flora and fauna species all over India.
Assam Eco Parks
Eco parks of Assam
protect and preserve the endangered and critically endangered species of flora and fauna. They also serve as significant tourists sites. Kaziranga National Park
, set up in 1926 was the first eco park established in Assam. Apart from this, Manas Tiger Reserve
is also another important eco park in Assam.
Jammu and Kashmir Eco Parks
Jammu and Kashmir
is the storehouse of numerous varieties of vegetation and wildlife. To conserve these in their natural habitat, several eco parks have been constructed in this region, which are governed by government as well as private organizations. Common eco parks of Jammu
include Hemis National Park
and Dachigam National Park
. Plants having commercial and medicinal values are also abundantly found here. These eco parks are also greatly cherished by tourists and nature lovers.
Madhya Pradesh Eco Parks
is famous for nestling tremendous variety of wildlife. For the conservation of these natural resources, eco parks have been established in the state, which serve as the home to a number of flora and fauna species. Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve
, Kanha Tiger Reserve
, Pench National Park
and Panna National Park
are the famed eco parks of the state which preserve the wildlife and vegetation of the state. These also contribute to the tourism of Madhya Pradesh
Rajasthan Eco Parks
Eco parks of Rajasthan
have gained substantial fame all over the country owing to its rich natural resources which have been greatly preserved in natural habitat. Ranthambore Tiger Reserve
, Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, Sariska Tiger Reserve
, Keoladeo Ghana National Park
, Desert National Park
, Jaisamand Sanctuary
, Tal Chhapar Sanctuary, Kumbhalgarh Sanctuary
and Mount Abu Sanctuary
are the major eco parks of the state. A vast variety of birds are also the residents of these eco parks.
Uttaranchal Eco Parks
Eco Parks are responsible for preserving and enhancing the natural resources of the state. Corbett National Park
, Valley of Flowers National Park
and Rajaji National Park
are the important eco parks of Uttaranchal. Tourism in these eco parks offers numerous interesting experiences like elephant
riding, boating, horse riding, jeep safari etc.
Gujarat Eco parks
Eco parks of Gujarat
also serve to maintain a natural habitat for the numerous species of flora and fauna. Notable plants of commercial as well as medicinal values are also found here. Gir National Park
is one of the most famous eco parks of the state.
Kerala Eco Parks
Vast variety of mammals, reptiles, birds and flowers are sheltered in the eco parks of Kerala
. They have also gained recognition throughout the country. Eravikulam National Park
, Periyar Tiger Reserve
, Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary
, Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary
, Eravikulam National Park
and Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary are the significant eco parks of the state.
Maharashtra Eco Parks
eco parks are the preservers of the natural resources of Maharashtra. Mahim Nature Park
is a prominent eco park of the state housing huge variety of flora and fauna.
Tamil Nadu Eco Parks
is also the centre of numerous species of plants and animals which have been well preserved by eco parks. Adyar Eco Park, Courtallam Eco Park and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary are the famous eco parks of the state which also attract a number of tourists.
West Bengal Eco Parks
Sundarbans Tiger Reserve
, Neora Valley National Park
, Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary, Singalia National Park, Buxa Tiger Reserve
, Gorumara National Park
, Prakriti Tirtha (New Town Eco Park) are the prominent eco parks of West Bengal
Haryana Eco Parks
Rich biodiversity can be observed in the state of Haryana
and their real essence can be cherished in the eco parks of the state. Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary
is a notable eco park of the state.
Karnataka Eco Parks
Bandipur National Park
, Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary, Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary
and Nagarhole National Park
are the notable eco parks of Karnataka
. In addition to different species of flora and fauna, many endangered species are also preserved here.
Orissa Eco Parks
is the home to a number of critically endangered species of animals. These, along with other species, are preserved in the eco parks of Orissa namely Badarma Sanctuary, Baisipalli Wildlife Sanctuary, Balukhand Sanctuary, Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary
, Gahirmatha Turtle Sanctuary
, Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary
and National Park and Nandankanan Zoo
Uttar Pradesh Eco Parks
Several eco parks are situated in the state of Uttar Pradesh
, which serve the similar purpose of preserving the natural resources of the state. These eco parks include National Chambal Sanctuary
, Katrnighat Wildlife Sanctuary, Ranipur Sanctuary, Mahavir Sanctuary, Dudhwa National Park
and Chandraprabha Sanctuary
. Several rare species of fauna are found in these eco parks.
Flora and Fauna of Eco Parks in India
Apart from the natural vegetation, the eco parks in India also provide natural habitat to numerous mammal species. Most of the species are famous worldwide and many of them are considered as endangered. The most popular Indian mammal species include the Tiger, Asian Elephant, Swamp Deer
, Wild Dog (Dhole
), Leopard-Cat, Jungle Cat, Indian Fox, Sloth Bear, Gaur (Indian Bison
, Spotted Deer
(Chital), Chousingha (Four-Horned Antelope), Nilgai
(Blue Bull), Indian Pangolin
, Mouse Deer, Chinkara (Indian Gazelle), Common Langur, Indian Pangolin, etc. Apart from that, the reptile species like Crocodiles, thousands of Snakes, Tortoise, Turtle
, etc are also found in the Indian eco parks.
Birds of Eco Parks in India
Eco parks in India are doing a great job by providing natural habitat to hundreds and thousands of bird species. India is popular worldwide for having a rich variety of bird species that include Streak-Throated Woodpecker
, White-Naped Woodpecker, Lesser Yellownape, Greater Racket-Tailed Drongo, Indian Roller
, Drongo Cuckoo
, Indian Pitta, Large Cuckooshrike, Black-Headed Cuckooshrike, Black-Hooded Oriole, Tickell's Blue Flycatcher, Blue Rock Thrush, Orange-Headed Thrush, Laughingthrush, Jerdon's Courser, Changeable Hawk Eagle, Besra, Crested Goshawk, Crested Serpent Eagle, Jerdon's Baza, Osprey, Brown Fish Owl, Mottled Wood Owl, Grey Junglefowl, Indian Peafowl, etc.
The main objective of the eco parks in India is to preserve the rich variety of flora and fauna species in India. India is home to several endangered, critically endangered, threatened or endemic species and these species can mostly be found in these eco parks. The parks are preserving all aspects of Indian wildlife like the plants, mammals, birds or reptiles. India is home to thousands of plant species out of which several are considered as near-endemic and endemic. There are also several other critically endangered and threatened plant species available in India.