History of Haryana
Haryana was part of the state of Punjab for a long time. Many settlements dating back to the Indus Valley Civilization have been found along this river bed, at Naurangabad and Mittathal. The Vedic civilization also flourished on the banks of the Saraswati River, and the hymns of Rig veda were composed here. Mahabharata mentions Haryana as Bahudhhanyaka which means 'land of plentiful grains' and Bahudhana, 'land of immense riches'. Several places mentioned in Mahabharata correspond to the modern day cities in Haryana. It is said that for 18 days the armies from all over India battled in the plains of Kurukshetrato decide who sits on the throne of Hastinapur. Maharaja Agrasen established a flourishing city near modern Hisar.
During the medieval period, i.e. in the 7th century AD, king Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar near Kurukshetra. After his death the region was invaded by the rulers from the northwest. In the 12th century, Prithviraj Chauhan established a fort at Hansi. In the Second Battle of Tarain, Muhammad Ghori conquered this area. In 1354, Firoz Shah Tughlaqestablished a fort at Hissar. The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the town of Panipat. In 1526, the First battle of Panipat took pace, where Babur, the ruler of Kabul defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate. This battle marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire in India. In the second battle of Panipat in November 5, 1556 Akbar 's general Bairam Khan conquered Hemu, and paved the way for Akbar's reign. The third battle of Panipat marked the end of the Maratha Empire in India. During the British rule, most of Haryana formed part of the Punjab province. On 1 November 1966, Haryana was carved out of Punjab.
Geography of Haryana
Haryana is embraced by Uttar Pradesh in the east, Punjab in the west, Himachal Pradesh in the north and Rajasthan in the south. Delhi protrudes into Haryana and is encompassed by it on three sides. The Shivalik hills in the north, River Yamuna in the east and river Ghaggar in the west form the natural boundaries of Haryana. There are numerous irrigation canals that cross the state, bringing water for irrigation from the perennial rivers of the Himalayas. The land is generally flat, covered with loamy soil and very suitable for agriculture. The climate of Haryana is continental.
Administration of Haryana
Bhupinder Singh Hooda is presently the Chief Minister of Haryana. The major political parties of Haryana are INC, INLD, BJP, CPI , CPI (ML)(L), RLD. There are 20 districts, 47 sub-divisions, 67 tehsils, 45 sub-tehsils and 116 blocks. Haryana has a total of 81 cities and towns. It has 6,759 villages. The state of Haryana is divided into four districts. They are Ambala, Rohtak , Gurgaon and Hissar
Demographics of Haryana
According to the 2011 census, the population of Haryana is 25,35,3081 with 13505130 males and 11847951 females. There are Hindus, Muslims, Jains and Christians. About 88% of the population is Jains. There are people belonging to different sects as Jats, Rajputs, Brahmans, Ahirs, Rors, Meos, Harijans, Gujars.
Culture of Haryana
The people of Haryana have a religious bent of mind. They give importance to fairs and festivals. During the time of fairs people gather around the temple of Lord Shiva. The major festivals are Diwali, Dussehra, Gugga Naumi, Holi and Bathing at Sohna.
Education of Haryana
The literacy rate of Haryana is 76.64%. There are many primary schools, middle schools, high schools and senior secondary schools in Haryana. The Haryana Board of School Education conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year and provides free education to women up to graduation level.
The four universities of Haryana are Maharshi Dayanand University, Kurukshetra University, Guru Jambheshwar University, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University.The National Dairy Research Institute is given the status of a deemed University.
Tourism in Haryana
Haryana has many places of religious significance. It houses several Sikh Gurdwaras that represents the secular tradition of the people of the state. It also has many Islamic shrines that attract devotees from far and near. It has several pilgrims which have a historical importance. The historical place of Kurukshetra, Jyotisar, Thaneshwar, Pehowa and Panchkula reminds one of the rich historical past of India.
The Sultanpur National Park and Bird Sanctuary has rare and endangered species of birds. Haryana is also noted for the golf tourism.