History of Azamgarh District states that the district is named after its headquarters town, Azamgarh, which was founded in 1665 by Azam, son of Vikramajit. Vikramajit a descendant of Gautam Rajputs of Mehnagar
in Pargana Nizamabad, like some of his predecessors, had embraced the faith of Islam
. History of Azamgarh District includes ancient period, medieval period and modern period. Ancient period of the district`s history states that Azamgarh, one of the easternmost districts of Uttar Pradesh, once formed a part of Kosala, ancient state of northern India
, except the north-eastern part of it which was included in the kingdom of Malla
Kosala figured prominently among the four powerful monarchies of northern India during the time of the Lord Buddha
, when its prosperity reached its peak. The district of Azamgarh possesses hardly any remains of much historical value. There are some deserted sites, forts and tanks to be seen in every tehsil of Azamgarh District and they carry vague legends regarding their builders. The early history of Azamgarh District can be traced only from the extant antiquities. That the region including this district was inhabited in ancient times is testified by the presence of old indigenous people like Bhar, Soeris and Cheru.
According to the medieval period of the history of Azamgarh District, the second battle of Tarain
in 1192 AD established the Islamic power in India. But the region including the district of Azamgarh does not appear to have gone under the immediate sovereignty of the Muslims. From the establishment of Jaunpur kingdom to its extinction, most of the tract now included in this district fell under its rule; but no important place in Azamgarh District can be mentioned as having been the seat of administration for the surrounding Parganas.
Modern period of the history of Azamgarh District states that at the beginning of 18th century, the area covered by Azamgarh District was included in Jaunpur and Ghazipur
and was held by the Raja of Azamgarh. At his time the prosperity of Azamgarh was at its top. Further, as per the history of Azamgarh District, on 18th September, 1832, Azamgarh District was formed. After the struggle of 1857 no major events except the Gaurakshini or the anti-cow slaughter movement of 1893 occurred in the district till the end of the 19th century. The Khilafat Movement
started in 1920 and its impact also spread in this district. In August 1920, Mahatma Gandhi
launched his famous non cooperation movement
, and the people of the district actively took part in it under the leadership of Suryanath Singh.
In 1931, no-rent campaign was started in the district. Azamgarh was in the front line of the Quit India Movement
, which was started on August 9, 1942. Thus, history of Azamgarh District shows that this district played a great role in the freedom struggle of the country.