(Last Updated on : 25/10/2010)
Indian Geology traces back its history with the geological evolution of rest of the Earth, before 4.57 billion years. India has a diverse geology; owing to its vastness. Different regions in India contain rocks of various types belonging to different geologic periods. Some of the rocks are severely distorted and transmuted while others are lately deposited alluvium.
Mineral deposits of great variety in huge quantity are found in the Indian geological surveys. Even the fossil records in Indian geology are impressive in which stromatolites, invertebrates, vertebrates and plant fossils are included. India`s geographical land area can be categorised into - Deccan Trap, Gondwana and Vindhyan. Firstly, the Deccan Trap covers almost the entire of Maharashtra, a part of Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh at its margin. According to Indian geology, it is believed that the Deccan Trap was formed as result of sub-aerial volcanic activity associated with the continental deviation in this part of the Earth during the Mesozoic era. That is why the rocks derived from this region are generally igneous type.
During its journey northward after breaking off from the rest of Gondwana, the Indian Plate passed over a geologic hotspot, the Réunion hotspot, which caused extensive melting underneath the Indian craton. The melting broke through the surface of the craton in a gigantic flood basalt event, creating what is known as the Deccan Traps. It is also believed that the Reunion hotspot caused the separation of Madagascar and India. The Gondwana and Vindhyan include within its fold, certain parts of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Punjab, Orissa, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Uttarakhand. Damodar and Sone river valley and Rajmahal hills in the eastern India are huge depository of the Gondwana rocks.
The Indian Plate is a tectonic plate that was originally a part of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland from which it separated and eventually became a major plate. About 50 to 55 million years ago, it combined with the adjacent Australian Plate. It is today part of the major Indo-Australian Plate, and includes the subcontinent of India and a part of the basin under the Indian Ocean. Geological Society of India is an important organisation dealing with Indian geological studies. It is based in Bangalore and its flagship product is the Journal of the Geological Society of India (JGSI). Geological Society of India promotes the cause of advanced study and research in all branches of earth system science. A council having a term of three years administers the society. The President of the current council is the geologist B. P. Radhakrishna. Indian Geology is an important aspect of Indian geography, dealing with the earth and soil matters.