(Last Updated on : 01/08/2011)
It is one of the most popular cities in Uttar Pradesh.
Agra is one of the major tourist destinations of the world due to the presence of many splendid Mughal-era buildings as Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri. The three are acclaimed as the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. These monuments are the heritage sites of our country. Agra is the third biggest city in Uttar Pradesh
. Agra is a city of the past filled with graveyards and stones. It is a vibrant centre of Culture, Art and Religious philosophies. Agra was perhaps named after the Indian city where the great monument, Taj Mahal was located. Some say that the city was named after the daughter of an official of the Rock Island Railroad.
History of Agra
Agra finds mention in the Mahabharata
, where it is mentioned as Agrabana. Ptolemy the famous second century A.D. geographer marked it on his map as Agra. It is believed that Sultan Sikandar Lodi
, the Ruler of Delhi Sultanate
founded Agra in the year 1504.
It was Babur
), who laid the first Persian garden on the banks of Yamuna River
. His grandson Akbar
raised the towering ramparts of the Great Red Fort
. He also made Agra a centre for learning arts, commerce and religion.
gifted Agra the most eternal monument of love, The Taj Mahal, which he built in the loving memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal
. Taj Mahal was complete in 1648. His son Aurangzeb
later shifted his capital to Agra and imprisoned his father in a fort there. Agra remained capital of India during the rule of Aurangzeb until he shifted it to Aurangabad
Geography of Agra
Agra is situated on the banks of the Yamuna River in Uttar Pradesh, India. On the north, Agra is bounded by Mathura
, on the south by Dhaulpur, on the east by Firozabad district
, on the south-east by Fatehabad district
and on the west by Bharatpur district
. The climate of Agra is tropical and is prone to extreme temperatures. The temperature rises to 45 AdegreeC during the summer and as low as 4 AdegreeC in the winter. Agra experiences monsoon between June and September and an annual rainfall of 26 inches.
Demography of Agra
Agra had a population of 1400000 as per the census of 2001. About 53% of the population is constituted by males and females constitute 47% of the population. The average literacy rate of Agra is 65%, which is higher than the national average of 63.5%. About 76% of the males and 53% of females are literate.
Culture of Agra
Agra is an amalgamation of various cultures. The traces of the different cultures can be seen in each and every part of the country. The city is a mixture of both rustic and modern lifestyle. The city is influenced by the Brij culture. People`s food habits, language and attires have been influenced from the Brij culture. The culture of Agra can be described as amalgamation of Brij culture and Mughal culture.
The festivals celebrated in Agra are Id-ul-Fitr, Id-ul-Adha, Muharrum, Diwali
, Taj Mahotsav etc. There are celebrations ranging from folk music, poetry, classical dance performances, elephant and camel rides to games and a food festival. The Taj food festival is an experience to savour exotic cuisines and delicacies and the Craft Mela exhibits exquisite crafts like marble inlays, wood carvings, brass and metal ware, handmade carpets, the blue pottery, the Chikan embroidery
, Banares Silk
etc. There are other festivals that are common to other regions of the country.
Education of Agra
The joint director of education administers control over the district inspector of schools, assistant director, basic education and Deputy Director of Education in Agra. At the district level, there is district inspector, who looks after the financial and administrative control of all high school and inters college in the district. There are deputy inspectors who give guidance to him. All the primary and junior high schools are under control the control of Basic Shiksha
Economy of Agra
The economy of Agra is based on agriculture, small scale industries and other trades. The major crops grown in the region are wheat
, paddy, bajra, potato etc. Directly or indirectly, 40% of the total economy of Agra depends on industry. Over 7200 Small Scale Industrial Units are spread all over the district that are engaged in the production of leather goods, handicrafts, zardozi
, marble and stone carving and inlay work. Agra is also well known for delicious sweets as peda and snacks as dalmoth and gaja.
Tourism of Agra
Agra is a popular tourist destination with its rapturous beauty and grandeur. Agra with its Taj Mahal
is one of the famous tourist spots of the world. Taj Mahal is one of the world`s seven wonders. The popular and important tourist places in Agra are Agra Fort
, Sikandara, Itmad-Ud-Daulah`s Tomb, Fatehpur Sikri
, Radha Swami Samadhi, Mariyam`s Tomb and Chinni Ka Roja.