(Last Updated on : 07/04/2009)
The account of the early Pallavas has not yet been adequately settled. The Prakrit
and the Sanskrit charters simply cite the royal names, their non-political grants and nothing about their supremacy or their political achievements. The earliest credentials on the Pallavas are the three copperplate grants. All three belong to Skandavarman I
and written in the Prakrit language. Skandavarman extended his dominions from the Krishna in the north to the Pennar in the south and to the Bellary district in the West. He performed the Aswametha and other Vedic sacrifices. Toward the commencement of their rule, Manchikallu, Mayidavoiu, Darsi and Ongolu were the centers of their activity. Kanchipuram gained eminence as the center of their political and cultural activity by the second quarter of the fourth century CE.
Around 350 CE, Vishnugopa was overpowered by Samudragupta
. With Samudragupta's expedition, the Paliava conceal set in. In the reign of Simhavarman IV, who ascended the throne in 436 CE, the collapsed stature of the Pallavas was reinstated. He recovered the provinces lost to the Vishnukundins in the north, up to the mouth of the Krishna. The early Pallava history from this period onwards is furnished by a dozen or so copperplate grants. They are inscribed in the Sanskrit language and dated in the regal years of the kings.
With the succession of Nandivarman (480-500 CE), the turn down of the early Pallava family was seen. The Kadambas
comprised of their hostility and captivated the nerve center of the Pallavas. In coastal Andhra the Vishnukundins founded their dominance. The Pallava authority was restricted to Tondaimandalam. With the accession of Simha Vishnu father of Mahendravarma I, probably in 575 CE, the magnificent colonial Pallava phase begins in the south.
The following chronology is accumulated from the three charters:
|Simhavarman I 275 - 300 CE
||Simhavarman II 436 - 460 CE
||Skandavarman IV 460 - 480 CE
|Visnugopa 350 - 355 CE
||Nandivarman I 480 - 510 CE
|Kumaravishnu I 350 - 370 CE
||Kumaravishnu II 510 - 530 CE
|Skandavarman II 370 - 385 CE
||Buddhavarman 530 - 540 CE
|Viravarman 385 - 400 CE
||Kumaravisnu III 540 - 550 CE
|Skandavarman III 400 - 436 CE
||Simhavarman III 550 - 560 CE
The Pandya Kadungon and the Pallava Simhavishnu wrecked the invasion of the Kalabhras and the perplexity in the Tamil realm. The Pallava Empire instigated to gain both in territory and authority over the South Indian peninsula. Pallavas implemented power over their southern neighbors of Cholas and Pandyas. But their history is manifested by the unremitting conflict with the Badami Chalukyas. Narasimhavarman I and Paramesvaravarman I was the king who stood out with celebrated achievements in both military and architectural spheres.
Simhavishnu (555 - 590 CE):
Simhavishnu also known as Avanisimha, son of Simhavarman III was one of the celebrated Pallavan kings of India accountable for the restoration of the Pallavan dynasty. He was the first Pallava emperor whose sphere of influence extended afar Kanchipuram (Kanchi) in the South. He did not leave any stone or copperplate inscriptions, but is rather known only through the proceedings of his heirs. He was affirmed as a great subjugator in Mattavilasa Prahasana (drunken revelry), a drama inscribed by his son Mahendravarman I.
Mahendravarman I (590 - 630 CE):
Mahendravarman I (600 - 630 CE) was the Pallava king reigning in the northern regions of Tamil nadu state in India. He was the son of Simhavishnu, who conquered the Kalabhras and re-established the Pallava kingdom. During his reign the Chalukya king Pulakesi II
attacked the Pallava kingdom. The Pallava capital Kanchipuram was under siege and the Pallava army was defeated.
Mahendravarman was a great patron of letters and architecture. The edifice of the famous rock-cut temples of Mahabalipuram had commenced under his dominion. He was also the author of the play Mattavilasaprahasana, a mockery concerning Buddhist and Saiva ascetics. Mahendravarman was an aficionado of the Jain
faith and according to convention he was transformed back into the Hindu belief by Appar, the Saiva saint, after he cured Mahendravarman's illness. Mahendravarman was descendeded to the throne by his eminent son Narasimhavarman I in 630 CE.
Narasimhavarman I (Mamalla) 630 - 668 CE:
Narasimhavarman I was one of the most celebrated Pallava kings who ruled from A.D. 630 - 668. He shared his father's (Mahendravarman I) love of art and accomplished the work started by Mahendravarman in Mahabalipuram. He retaliated his father's conquer at the hands of the Chalukya king, Pulakesi II in the year 642. Narasimhavarman was also known as Mamallan (great wrestler) and Mahabalipuram was also known as Mamallapuram (city of Mamallan). It was during his reign that the Chinese traveller, Hsuan Tsang
, visited Kanchipuram in about 642.
|Mahendravarman II 668 - 672 CE
||Nandivarman II (Pallavamalla) 732 - 796 CE
|Paramesvaravarman I 672 - 700 CE
||Thandivarman 775 - 825 CE
|Narasimhavarman II (Raja Simha) 700 - 728 CE
||Nandivarman III 825 - 869 CE
|Paramesvaravarman II 705 - 710 CE
||Aparajitha Varman 882 - 901 CE