The history of Balasore is the amalgamation of several cultures and civilizations colonized the region for a couple of years. However Balasore was a part of the ancient Kalinga, which later came under the jurisdiction of Toshala or Utkal till the death of Mukunda Deva. The history of Balasore witnessed a quick succession of several dynasties in its bosom. When the power of the indigenous Hindu kings falls short to retain their kingdom with a strong foundation, the Mughals emerged and annexed it in 1568. The Marahattas overpowered Mughals and the realm of Balasore was passed into the hands of the Marhatta Rajas of Nagpur. As far as the history of Balasore is concerned, there was a constant strife among the different rulers over the entire tract of Balasore. Finally during the British expedition in India, the absolute political power came in the hands of the British Raj.
The present history of Balasore is recorded from the commencement of the British imperialism in India along with the entire region of Orissa. Balasore was the important site of the British administration in Eastern India. The east India Company ceded this part of Balasore to the British Government in England by a treaty called treaty of Deogaon, which was the beginning of the British era in the history of Balasore. But as the documented history of Balasore depicts, the English settlement in Balasore began during the reign of the Muhgal Emperor Shah Jahan far back in 1634. However the British arrive at that time with the design to establish their trade in the profitable region of India. They settled in Balasore because of the positional significance of Balasore.
The first English factories were established in Balasore in 1640. During this time the Dutch and Danish settlements were also found established their bases in Balasore. Balasore as a separate district was recognized as the separate district in year 1828 when it was a part of the Bengal Presidency. But with the creation of the State of Orissa as a separate functional unit, on 1st April 1936, Balasore was annexed with Orissa. After independence the whole of Orissa has underwent several changes owing to the alteration in its boundaries.