The Southern Mahratta Railway Rifles was a British Indian Infantry unit that operated under the Volunteer Corps of the British Indian Army. The auxiliary force was formed on 21st August 1885 by the British Empire in India as the Southern Mahratta Railway Rifles. The headquarters of the regiment was established in Hubli (Hubballi) state of Karnataka. The battalion served under the administrative authority of the Presidency Armies in British India (Bengal Army, Madras Army and Bombay Army).
On 28th January 1898, the Southern Mahratta Railway Rifles absorbed the auxiliary infantry unit of Bellary Volunteer Rifle Corps which was formed on 24th July 1885. In the year 1901, the uniform of the troops was khaki drill formals. The detachments of the military battalion was stationed in various posts in Bangalore (Bengaluru), Arsikere, Kistna, Donaconda, Guntakal, Bellary, Hotgi, Gadag, Dharwad, Castle Rock, Belgaum, Miraj and Poona (Pune).
Later on 4th June 1910 the regiment was merged with the Madras Railway Volunteers unit and was designated as the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Rifles. The Madras Railway Volunteers was designated as the 1st Battalion and the Southern Mahratta Railway Rifle Corps was assigned as the 2nd Battalion, Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Rifles.
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