Kavya with admixture of both prose and poem are known as Champu. In a Champu composition every stanza starts with the same alphabet. This is sung in Raaga and Tala. Instead of Anibadha Alapa there is Rupak Alapa. There is Pada Vinayas, short Swara Uinyas and no Taan.
The main characteristic of these verses is the stress on rhythm. It is set to a definite melody and Raaga. No steps of Raaganga are followed but the traditional technique and colourful Gamaka used here make it a special and very popular style. It is sung in a particular Brutta or Vani. Every Pada of a Chhanda is sung in the same Swara. Singers sing from the Oriya language epics of Mahabharata, Ramayana and from the Indian Puranas.
There are 34 (Chautrisha) Padas in such a composition. Hence it is called Chautisha. Like Chhanda this is based on Brutta or Vani and all the Padas are sung in the same swara. But unlike Chhanda it is always composed with 34 Padas. Every Pada begins with one alphabet of Oriya language and in the 34 Padas 34 alphabets are used in Proper sequence. Among all the Chautisa songs written in Oriya 'Manabodha Chautisa' is most popular.
It consists of four stanzas. This variety of songs is songs of love. The language of the songs is lyrical, simple and direct.
This type of singing is not in popular practice but it comes under the traditional singing style. This type of song is not very old in origin. It consists of four parts, namely, Khayal, Tarana, Saraagam and Tirvat. In the first part, the words of the song are there, the second consists of syllables of Tarana, in the third part a small piece of Sargam is sung in the same Raaga in which Chaturang is sung, and in the last part, the Bols of Mridang or Pakhavaj are recited.
The Geeta Gobinda is one of the most beautiful works of the performing arts. It is an admixture of song and drama. Through millions of devotees who visited the Jagannath temple from various parts of India, Gitagovindams popularity spread all over India. There are a total of 24 Astapadas and these songs describe the various moods, shades and various episodes of love between Radha and Lord Krishna. They were written in 12th century in Sanskrit language. These verses exude at once spiritualism and eroticism. Oriya music as well as literature bears distinct marks of Jayadeva's style.
Gita Gobinda, is composed in Gitichhanda. Jayadeva has incorporated the Raaga, Tala etc. in his Prabandhas. He has mentioned the name of Raagas in which the particular Pada should be sung. Nibaddha Alap and short Pada Vinayas are followed but Swara Vinayas and Taan are avoided. These songs are composed on popular Prakrit model but interwoven into Kavya. The musical and poetic potentialities of the compositions of Geeta Gobinda were so rich that they have left indelible mark on the composers of Orissa of the medieval and even of the modern period.
Janana and Bhajan
These are purely devotional songs. In Janana supplication and invocation are made while Bhajan is only in praise of the Lord. In both the types there is only short Nibaddha Alap. There is a difference in Tala in the three systems
Thus discussed are the different forms and types of Odissi music.
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