(Last Updated on : 02/02/2013)
Arunachal Pradesh is located in northeast India that shares its international borders with Tibet, Myanmar and Bhutan. It occupies 32,269 sq miles and its capital is Itanagar
. The name is attributed to its location as the easternmost state of India. The state is blessed with lush green forests and deep river valleys. Almost every major river valley is home to a different tribe, with a wealth of fascinating cultures and people.
History of Arunachal Pradesh
The history of Arunachal Pradesh
began from the time of Kalika Purana
. The aboriginals of Arunachal Pradesh migrated from Tibet. There are practically no records relating to the earlier history of this place except some oral literature and some historical ruins found mainly in the foot hills dating from the early Christian era. Until 1972, Arunachal Pradesh was administered as the North East Frontier Agency
(NEFA). In 1972, it was constituted as a Union Territory of India
and renamed Arunachal Pradesh. On 20th February in 1987, it became the 24th state of the Indian Union.
Geography of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh is the largest state in the northeast. The state stretches from the snow-capped eastern Himalayan Mountains
range, at an altitude of 6,000 meters, to the plains of the Brahmaputra River
valley. Arunachal Pradesh is surrounded by Bhutan, China and Burma. Assam lies to its south. The major rivers that flow through the state are Kameng river
, Subansiri, Siang (later Brahmaputra River in Assam), Lohit River
and Tirap. The climate varies with elevation.
Demography of Arunachal Pradesh
The population of Arunachal Pradesh is predominantly tribal in character and there are about 20 major tribes, which are divided into a number of sub tribes. In distribution of population, Arunachal Pradesh is divided into six natural regions. The first two regions are the West Kameng District
and Tirap District
, which has large a concentration of population. The upper, the middle and the lower belts of the remaining parts of Arunachal Pradesh constitute three distinct regions. The concentrated population areas on the foothills constitute the sixth region. The tribes of the state are either Tibetan or have Thai-Burmese origin. A part of the population includes immigrants from Bangladesh, Assam
. The major population of the state consists of Buddhists.
The population of the state according to the census of 2011 is 1,38,26,11. The population density is 17 persons per sq kilometre. The literacy has risen in official figures to 66.95% in 201. The total literate population is said to number 789,943. The number of literate males are 454,532 (73.69%) and number of literate females are 335,411 (59.57%).
Culture of Arunachal Pradesh
The people of Arunachal Pradesh can be categorised into three cultural groups on the basis of their socio-religious affinities. The Monpas
and West Kameng districts follow the tradition of Mahayana Buddhism
. They are noted for their religious fervour. The villages of these communities have richly decorated Buddhist monasteries. These are locally called 'Gompas'. Though largely agriculturists practising terrace cultivation, many of these people are also living on pastoral and breed herds of yak and mountains sheep. Culturally similar to them are Membas and Khambas
who live in the high mountains along the northern borders of Arunachal Pradesh. Khampti
s and Singphos Tribe
are residing in the eastern part of the state. They are the followers of Hinayana Buddhisim
. They are said to have migrated from Thailand and Myanmar long ago and still using ancient scripts derived from their original homeland.
The second group of the people are Adis, Akas, Apatanis
, Bangnis, Nishings
, Thongsas etc. They worship Sun and Moon God. Donyi-Polo and Abo-Tani are the original ancestors for most of these tribes. Their religious rituals largely coincide with phases of agricultural cycles. They invoke nature deities and perform animal sacrifices. They traditionally practice Jhum
or shifting cultivation. The Adis and Apatanis extensively cultivated the moist rice and have a considerable agricultural economy. Apatanis are also famous for their paddy-cum-pisciculture. They are specialised over centuries in harvesting two crops of fish along with each crop of the paddy.
The third group comprises Noctes
. They inhabit in the adjoining Nagaland
in the Tirap District. These are hardy people known for their strictly structured village society in which hereditary village chief still plays a vital role in their social structure. The Noctes also practise elementary form of Vaishnavism
Education of Arunachal Pradesh
Education system of Arunachal Pradesh is relatively less developed. The state government is expanding the education system in association with various NGOs like Vivekananda Kendra. The state has several reputable schools, colleges, and institutions. Rajiv Gandhi
University is the only university in the entire state. Apart from this there are seven government colleges in different districts catering to higher education. The North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (NERIST) play an important role in technical and management higher education.
Administration in Arunachal Pradesh
The state has 16 districts namely, Tawang , West Kameng district East Kameng district
, Papum Pare district
, Lower Subansiri district
, Upper Subansiri district
, West Siang , East Siang, Upper Siang, Upper Dibang Valley, Lower Dibang Valley district
, Lohit district
, Changlang district
, Tirap , Kurung-Kumeythe and Anjaw
district. A district collector, who sees to the needs of the local people, administers these districts.
The present Chief Minister of the state is Jarbom Gamlin and the Governor is General Joginder Jaswant Singh
Economy of Arunachal Pradesh
Agriculture forms the backbone of the economy. About 61,000 square kilometres of Arunachal Pradesh are covered with forests. Forest-products are the next most significant parts of the economy of the state. The place has an ideal climate for horticulture and fruit orchards. The crops that contribute to the economy of the state are rice
. The major industries of the state are rice mills, fruit preservation units and handloom handicrafts. Tourism also forms an important part of the economy to the state
Tourism in Arunachal Pradesh
The places of tourist attractions include the Namdapha Tiger Reserve
in Changlang district
, Sela Lake near to Bomdila Monastery
, with the bamboo bridges hanging over the river. The historical attractions of the state are Malinithan
in Lekhabali and Rukhmininagar near Roing. Apart from this other places of tourist attraction include Tawang
Monastery, Parasuram Kund
, Tipi Orchid Centre, Brahmaputra River
, Itanagar, Tawang, Tezu
, Dibang River
and Lohit Valley, Pashighat.