(Last Updated on : 29/04/2010)
Mon District an administrative district of Nagaland has its headquarters at Mon Town. This district of Nagaland covers an area of 1786 sq km, and is bounded on the north by Sibsagar District of Assam, on the south by Tuensang District and by Myanmar, on the east by Myanmar and on the west by Tuensang and Mokokchung Districts of Nagaland. In the northeast lies Tirap District
of Arunachal Pradesh
. The altitude of Mon District headquarters is 897.64 meters above the sea level.
History of Mon District
Mon District was not brought under the Civil Administration till the year 1948. By the year 1914, the Foreign and Political Department of Government of India
, extended the Assam
Frontier Tract Regulation of 1880 to the Hills, which were either inhabited or frequented by Abor Tribes
, Mishmi Tribe
, Singpho Tribe
, Naga Tribe
, Khamptis, Bhutias, Akas and Daflas. It is by this extension, Government of India named the region as the North East Frontier Tract. Hence, the present Mon District was also brought under same government notification. In 1951, the plain portion of Balipara Frontier Tract, Tirap Frontier Tract, Abor Hills District and Mishmi Hills were transferred to the administrative jurisdiction of the Government of Assam. Thereafter, the remaining areas of the said North East Frontier together with the Naga Tribal Area of Tuensang including Mon District were re-named as the North East Frontier Agency. The district was carved out of the Tuensang District (Nagaland) on 21st of December, 1973.
Geography of Mon District
Geography of Mon District is basically hilly with steep slopes. Low-lying areas with undulating hills characterize the foothills. The District can be divided into two regions topographically, namely the Upper Region comprising Longching, Chen, Mopong and Tobu areas and the Lower Region comprises Mon, Tizit and Naginimora area. The foothills lie adjacent to the plains of Assam. The hill ranges extend from the foothills to the slopes of Naga Hills and Patkai Range in the eastern side of the district. Shawot, the highest peak in the district, has an altitude of 2414 meters above sea level. Geography of Mon District also provides a natural habitat to different species of flora and fauna. Mon District has a moderate climate. Days are warm and nights are cool. Rainy season sets in the month of May and lasts till October. From November to April, the District has dry weather with relatively cool nights and bright and sunny days. The average relative humidity is 76 per cent and the average temperature is 24.4 degrees Celsius. The average annual rainfall ranges from 2000 mm to 3000 mm, mostly occurring between May and October. Dikhu River is the most important river in the district. Further, there are some minor streams, rivulets and rills all over the district. Other important rivers of Mon District are Yamon, Yityong, Kaimang, Tesang, Maksha, Tapi, Tizit, Teyap, Tekang, Jein, Teggie, Telem, Pongma and Tehok.
Demography of Mon District
Konyaks can be grouped into two groups, namely "Thendu" and "Thentho". The former inhabit the lower region of the district while the latter are the settlers of the upper region of the district (Tobu area). The population of Mon District is 2,59,604 according to the Provisional Census 2001. Of this, male population is 1,38,005 and female population is 1,21,599. The density of population is 145 sq km. The literacy rate in the district is 42.25 per cent. Of this, male literacy is 46.70 per cent and female literacy is 37.12 per cent as per 2001 Census.
Economy of Mon District
Economy of Mon District is basically agrarian. The main occupation of the people of this district is agriculture with nearly 90 per cent of the work force engaged in it. Mon District has great potentialities for economic development if the forest resources, human resources, water resources etc. can be re-generated. But the economic condition of the district lacks infrastructure inadequacies. The recent trend in the district is tea-cultivation by the local people. The gentle slopes of Mon District provide ample scope for developing cultivation in the region with all modern techniques.
Culture of Mon District
Mon District is rich in its culture and tradition. It has rich cultural heritage of ages past wooden effigy and statues dating back to Stone Age depicting the human craftsmanship and skill. The Konyaks are skilled in the art of making firearms. They are also skilled in handicrafts like basket making, cane and bamboo works, brass works etc. Konyaks celebrate mainly two festivals, namely "Aolingmonyu" and "Laolongmo" besides Christmas
, New Year, etc. Aolingmonyu is celebrated in the spring season after the sowing of seeds in the month of April. Laolongmo is celebrated in the month of August after the harvest is over.
Tourism in Mon District
Tourism in Mon District offers a number of beautiful sightseeing, trekking, fishing, and picnic spots for the travellers. Some of the tourist spots of Mon District are Wanching, Wakching, Mon, Shangnyu, Chui, Longwa, Angphang, Monyakshu, Pessao and Changlangshu, famous for wood carving; Sheanghachingnyu, Langmeang and Longwa are famous for skull exhibits and wood carving; Dikhu river, Tizit, Tapi, Teyap etc. are sights for tourist attraction for fishing and picnicking; Yetyong, Kaimang, Maksha and Thannyak rivers are popular for trout fishing; Shangnyu and Chui have been declared as the ethnic villages providing a rich educational research work for anthropologists. These places of interest of Mon District attract the people from different parts of the world.
Mon District can be reached by bus from two routes via Sonari in Sibsagar District of Assam and via Simulguri (Assam). There are no train and air services to Mon. The nearest Airport is Jorhat
(Assam), which is about 161 km from Mon. There are direct bus services from Kohima and Dimapur to Mon.