(Last Updated on : 02/05/2013)
India is consists of an astonishing diversity of climatic conditions, depending upon the various regions from alpine to tropical ranging form the Himalayas to the South. The Thar Desert and the Himalayas greatly manipulate India's climatic conditions. Various climatic zones are prevalent in India influenced by different features like location and surface conditions and varied topography. Four types of climatic zones are found in India- Arid, Tropical, Subtropical, and Alpine zones.
The arid zone is mainly dominant in vast areas of Rajasthan
and the western regions of the country. The special features of the arid zone are low levels of rainfall accompanied with high temperature, which generally reaches up to 50 degree Celsius.
The tropical zone consists of two different types, namely, Tropical Dry and Tropical Wet Monsoon. The Tropical Dry zone has low rainfall and high temperature. Where as, in the Tropical Wet region, temperature is relatively average within 18 degree Celsius and includes high levels of rainfall.
The Subtropical zone is mainly found in the Northern India, and features usual Indian climatic conditions. Summers are defined by high temperatures along with rainfall where as winters are extremely dry and cold.
Such climatic zones are experienced in the high regions of the Himalayas, where the because of the disparity in altitude, climatic conditions also vary frequently. In the elevated regions, the Alpine Tundra Zone is prevalent.
India generally faces four types of climatic seasons, summer, rainy or monsoon, retreating or post-monsoon, and winter.
Summers in Indian climate lasts from the months of March, April to July. Temperature rises the most during April in southern and western regions, when the Indian subcontinent faces the sun vertically. Where as temperature rises the most in May in the northern regions. Average temperatures ranges from 32 degree Celsius to 40 degree Celsius.
Rainy or Monsoon:
In the Indian climatic conditions, the monsoons generally last from the month of June to September, which is the same time period for most parts of the country. From the end of May, southwest summer monsoon gradually dictates the season across the nation. Monsoon laden winds generally announce the arrival of monsoon accompanied by lightning and thunderstorms. Most rainfall is typically recorded in the southern regions of the country.
Retreating or Post-Monsoon:
After the monsoons, the rainy seasons begins to recede from the months of September and October. This period generally lasts up to, December, after which the winter starts to arrive. Most parts of the nation experiences a pleasant cloudless weather, particularly in north western India. Monsoon usually retreats from most of the regions, except for south India.
The winter season lasts from December to February and up to April in certain parts of the country. During this period, the climatic condition is basically cold, with temperatures ranging from 10-15 degree Celsius around the north western areas and 20-25 degree Celsius towards the south eastern regions. Winters in India are typically dry and December and January are the coldest months.
The Indian climate is largely responsible for the varied kinds of flora and fauna in the country. In cool temperatures, one may find, orchids, sal, palm and different medicinal herbs, while the plants growing in south India different due to different climatic type.
Currently, pollution and unrestrained industrialisation has adversely affected the Indian climate, bringing about severe changes in the seasonal cycle. Thus, it has resulted in recurrent climatic catastrophes like floods drought and global warming. Deforestation has directly effected in drought and landslides. Floods in various parts of the country have now become a serious concern, due to loss of numerous life and assets. Injurious and harmful gases such as Sulphur dioxide, Carbon dioxide, Methane, Carbon monoxide and others from various polluting agents have given rise to Global Warming thus adversely affecting and altering the Indian climate.