Invasion of Ramnad and the Occupation of the Nawab of the Carnatic
In the year 1771, Thuljaji also invaded the dominion of Polygar of Ramnad who had wrested Hanumantagudi from Thanjavur during the reign of Pratapsingh. The Raja of Ramnad was very much dependent of Nawab of Carnatic and this action of aggression by Thuljaji forced the Nawab to interfere. A mortifying understanding was forced upon the Raja and was later ratified by the officials of the British East India Company. Apart from a war indemnity of thirty-two lakhs, eighty lakhs of arrears had to be paid. Thuljaji also ceded two Subhas of Thanjavur to the Nawab. Arni and Hanumantagudi were taken from the Raja's hands and Thanjavur was to have the identical foreign policy as the kingdom of the Nawab.
Thuljaji, shaken and humiliated by the provisions of the treaty, applied to the Peshwa for help. A large army commanded by Raghoba was dispatched to help Thuljaji. But court intrigues at Satara forced him to turn back. Thanjavur was taken by the forces of the Nawab of Carnatic and Thuljaji was deposed. Thanjavur loathed under the rule of the Nawab for three years (from 1773 to 1776).
Restoration of Thuljaji
In the year 1776, the Board of Directors of the British East India Company also ordered the restoration of Thuljaji. Nonetheless, soon after the restoration treaty was forced upon him by which he became a mere vassal of the British. His army was disbanded and replaced with Company troops. He was to pay regular tribute to both the Nawab and the Company.
The Second Mysore War
In the year 1780, Second Mysore War broke out between Hyder Ali and the Company. Immediately after that, along with his son Tipu Sultan he also invaded Thanjavur. The Mysore army was in complete occupation of the kingdom for 6 years. The entire region was ransacked and the people were carried away. There are records by missionary Schwartz which shows the abduction of 20,000 children by Tipu Sultan from Thanjavur in the year 1784 alone. The entire produce fell and a calamity thus ensued. Thereafter, Thanjavur, due to the impact of Tipu Sultan, did not recover till the beginning of the 19th century.
Literature of Thuljaji
Being a fine writer, Thuljaji, could compose in Sanskrit as well as Telugu and Marathi. Later, he was also conferred the title of Andhra Kalidasa on poet Aluri Kuppana. Poet Aluri Kuppana wrote several classics like Acharyavijayamu, Panchanada Sthalapurana, Yakshaganas of Ramayana and the Bhagavata, Parana Bhagavatacharitra, Indumati Parinaya and Karmavipaka. Thuljaji, even though he was a Hindu, was tolerant of other faiths and confided upon a Christian missionary called Schwartz. Thuljaji was also drawn deeply to Saivism.
Death of Thuljaji
In the year 1787, at the age of 49, Thuljaji died leaving a poor state for its people. As a result, two of his queens committed Sati. As Thuljaji did not have any offspring, he adopted Serfoji from a parallel branch of the Bhonsle family. Serfoji II ascended the throne at the age of 10 with Thuljaji's brother Amarsingh as regent.
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