(Last Updated on : 06/09/2012)
Guru Har Gobind also known as the Sacha Padshah was the sixth guru of the Sikhs
, born on 25th May, 1606. He was made a guru at the tender age of eleven. Guru Har Gobind had the elements of a soldier and a sportsman combined in his personality. During his secession ceremony he wore two swords and 52 bodyguards, 700 horses, 300 horsemen, and 60 gunners. He created a government of his own like that of the rulers of Mughal Dynasty
. During his reign he had been imprisoned by the Mughals in Gwalior Fort
. The actual hostility between Mughal troops and the Guru broke out in the early years of Shah Jahan
's reign. Guru Hargobind decided to defy the Mughal authorities and fought six engagements against the Mughal officials from 1633 to 1638. He kept on shifting his headquarter from Amritsar
to Hargobindpur, then to Kartarpur, then to Phagwara, and finally to Kiratpur
in the relative safety of the Shivalik Hills
. He thus fought many battles that have been explained below:
Battle of Jallo
It was fought in the year 1633 when Guru Hargobind and Shah Jahan were hunting in the same forest. A quarrel amongst their followers began in which Mughal followers were beaten back by the Sikhs.
Battle of Sangrana
It was fought in the year 1633 when a large force was sent against the Guru. A battle was fought in Sangrana in which the Mughal force was defeated.
Battle of Amritsar
It was fought in the year 1634 when a much larger force was sent to capture the Guru. After a fight the Guru shifted to Jhabal. There he organised the nuptial ceremony of his daughter and waited for the attack of the Mughal army. The Guru gave a surprise attack and defeated the Mughal army, killing many, including their commander. The defeated army then returned to Lahore.
Battle of Lahara
It was fought in the year 1637. Once, a disciple of the Guru Har Gobind had gone to Kabul and Balkh to secure some fine horses for the Guru. He collected three fine Arab horses. On his return journey Mohsin Fani accompanied him. At Lahore two horses were seized by the governor Khalil Khan. Bidhi Chand, a dacoit turned disciple of the Guru, was then sent to secure back the horses. Khalil Khan sent a large force after the Guru who had moved to Lahara. However, they lost the battle.
Battle of Gurusar
It was fought in the year 1637. Guru Har Gobind had temporarily moved into the Lakhi jungle. The Mughals had sent Kumar Beg and Lal Beg with a large force. However, the Sikhs laid an ambush and made a sudden attack and defeated the Mughal force. The scene of the battle is now called Gurusar situated at 5 km from the Rampura Phul railway station.
Battle of Kartarpur
This battle was fought in the year 1638. A Mughal force was sent under the command of Mir Badehra and Paindah Khan against the Guru who had only 5000 men with him. A tough battle was fought in which both the enemy commanders were killed. In this battle Guru's son Tyagmal displayed exemplary courage and he was named Guru Teg Bahadur
After these battles the Guru realized that his resources were not adequate for the open defiance of the Mughal forces and hence he decided to retreat into the relative security of the Shivalik hills at Kiratpur
. There were no further confrontations with the Mughals during the last decade of the Guru's life.