(Last Updated on : 22/05/2012)
The Orissa Tributary States were a collection of former princely states of India
that were under the indirect rule of the British Government of India
. At present the region is located in the state of Orissa
, India. The Orissa Tributary States were bounded by the states of Jharkhand
and was located on the hilly region of eastern Orissa. During the 18th century, the whole territory was placed under the authority and control of the Maratha Empire, particularly under the Bhonsle Maharajas of Nagpur
. In the meantime, the British administration was successfully established in Bengal and was increasing their authority in the lowland areas of Orissa. During the late 18th century, the British forces and the Maratha forces came into conflict and clashed with each other. At the end of the Second Anglo Maratha War in the year 1803, the Maharaja of Nagpur ceded Orissa to the British government.
Few of the erstwhile Maratha territory was directly ruled by the British administration and attached to the Bengal Presidency
. Under the rule and authority of the native rulers, other territories were appointed as princely states under a treaty of subsidiary alliance to the British monarch. The position of the Orissa Tributary States, the biggest of which were Nayagarh
, Boudh, Dhenkanal, Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj, was uncertain and vague until the year 1888, when the Secretary of State for India accepted the analysis that they did not form a division of British India. Later the improved powers were handed over to the chiefs of Orissa, under the control and administration of a superintendent
In the year 1905, five Oriya speaking states, namely Kalahandi, Patna
, Sonpur, Rairakhol and Bamra, were added from the Central Provinces; and two other states, Bonai and Gangpur, from the Chota Nagpur States. The total area covered by the Orissa Tributary States, with the addition of these states, was 72,638 sq km and the region comprised of a population of 3,173,395 in the year 1901, according to the census of the same year. In the year 1912, the province of Bihar and Orissa was separated from Bengal province, and the Orissa Tributary States were placed under the authority control of the governor of the province of Bihar and Orissa. In 1936, Orissa was appointed as a separate province and the Orissa Tributary States were combined with the Eastern States Agency
, which was under the direct control and authority of the Governor General of India, instead of the provincial governor.
After the country achieved independence in the year 1947, the native rulers of the states acceded to the newly formed Union of India
. The former Orissa Tributary States were incorporated into the state of Orissa, excluding for the Oriya speaking princely states of Kharsawan and Sarikela.