Soils of Mainpuri District are typical of those found elsewhere in the Indo Gangetic Plain. These are classified on two principles accordingly as the distinctions recognised are natural or artificial. The distribution of these soils appears to be connected with the rapidity of the drainage of surface water from almost flat alluvial plain, for sand is found wherever there is a river with a comparatively deep bed within a few miles, and clay is common east near swamps and other ill-defined drainage lines.
Kali River forms the north-eastern boundary of Mainpuri District separating it from Etah District and Farrukhabad District. It is a narrow stream, but perennial, and even during the spring and summer month is navigable at certain places. Next to this river comes the Isan, which is a considerable stream, fordable only in a few places in the rains. But during the rest of the year the volume of running water is small, and in years of unusual drought there is no apparent stream. Rind River, a tributary of Yamuna River, is a very insignificant stream in this district. It enters at the north of Pargana Mustafabad, and traverses in an exceedingly sinuous course from the extreme north-west to the extreme south-east corner of the district.
The general slope of the district is from north-west south east, and this is the direction in which the rivers run and which is therefore followed in the main by the drainage. There are however, numerous inequalities of surface caused by the elevation of the river beds and by the sand ridges. And the general disposition of the drainage system differs in different portions of the district. Mainpuri District is a well wooded district on the whole apart from the comparatively bare user plains. The district is, however, poor in natural resources.