History of East Singhbhum District
Historically, it is said that in the past large number of lions were found in this area. Subsequently, this geographical area has been named as Singhbhum "Land of Lions". Before independence the same area of this district was a part of old Manbhum District and old Dhalbhum Estate. After independence of the country, it has been merged with the Greater Singhbhum.
Geography of East Singhbhum District
About 53 per cent of the total area of East Singhbhum District is covered by residual mountains and hills consisting granite, gneiss, schist and basalt rocks. It is a part of Chota Nagpur Plateau of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphosed rocks of Dharwarian period are found every where. The Dalma range is as main hill has been extended from west to east covered by dense forest. The Subernarekha River flows from west to south-east direction. All the tributaries of this area meet with the Subernarekha River. Generally, the height of this area is 700 ft to 3100 ft above sea level. The district is rich in minerals and is found abundantly. Iron Ore, Copper, Uranium and Goldare the main minerals. In East Singhbhum District, Deciduous type of forest is found in which Sal, Gamhar, Mahua, Palash, Bamboo, Shrubs and grass are the main vegetation. The district has at present 33 per cent forest area. Due to industrialization and large scale of mining deforestation has taken place. The climate of East Singhbhum District is temperate. Annual rainfall is 1200 mm to 1400 mm. This area comes under the path of south-west monsoon so sometimes it receives heavy rain during July to September. During the summer season maximum temperature goes up to 40 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius whereas in winter it has recorded a minimum of 8 degree Celsius.
Demography of East Singhbhum District
According to the Population Census in year 2011, East Singhbhum District had population of 2,291,032 of which male and female were 1,175,696 and 1,115,336 respectively. The population of East Singhbhum District constituted 6.95 percent of total population of Jharkhand. The density of East Singhbhum district for 2011 is 648 people per sq. km. The average literacy rate of East Singhbhum in 2011 was 76.13 percent compared to 68.79 of 2001. If things are looked out at gender wise, male and female literacy were 84.51 and 67.33 respectively. The total literates in East Singhbhum District were 1,526,186 of which male and female were 867,656 and 658,501 respectively. In 2001, East Singhbhum District had 1,169,213 in its district.
Culture of East Singhbhum District
Culture of East Singhbhum District is basically tribal in nature as more or less tribal population is prominent throughout the district. Santhal Tribe, Munda Tribe, Ho Tribe, Bhumiz Tribe, Kharia Tribe, and Sabar Tribe are the main tribal groups of this region. Their culture is still very sound. They have their own dialect, social rule, traditions, beliefs and festivals. Village Pradhans traditionally guide them. They are educationally backward living below the poverty line. The tribal groups namely Kharia tribe, Sabar are known as primitive tribes. Apart from the tribes most of the population of this area belongs to backward community. They are socially, educationally and economically backward still they have been neglected in developmental activities.
Economy of East Singhbhum District
In the urban area of East Singhbhum District, socio-economic condition of the inhabitants is comparatively sound. Industries and mines have provided employment opportunity whereas in the rural areas people are mainly dependent on agriculture. As it is the part of Chota Nagpur Plateau, its soil is full of grovels and red laterite containing sand and silica, which is not suitable for agriculture. Lowland is comparatively fertile. Paddy is main crop of this area. Approximately 49 per cent people are engaged in agriculture and agriculture related works and around 2.45 per cent is engaged in industrial field.
Tourism in East Singhbhum District
Tourism options in East Singhbhum District are numerous. People visiting this district can have an enriching tourism experience. There are several popular sight-seeing options here. Like for instance, Jubliee Park, TATA Zoological Park, Dimna Lake, Lawajoda Temple, Budha-Bidhi Hill, Harina Shiva Temple, Rankini Temple, etc. are some of the significant tourist attractions of East Singhbhum District. Further, ther is a Dalma wildlife sanctuary for elephants, which also attracts the travellers.
East Singhbhum District is famous for its industries, mining, tribal culture and beautiful parks.