(Last Updated on : 29/01/2009)
Bahmani Dynasty has added an important dimension in Indian history. The Turkish governor Ala-ud-din Bahman Shah revolted against the Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad Bin Tughluq
was the Sultan at that time. Muhammad failed to defeat the revolt and Bahman established an independent state within the Delhi Sultanate
's southern provinces, on the Deccan. It was one of the great medieval Indian Kingdoms. Bahman Shah conquered large part of the Deccan. By 1358 the Bahmani Empire extended to the areas near the west coast, the ports of Goa and Dabhal. He conquered the Hindu rulers of Vijaynagar and Warangal
. The Bahmans were responsible for the destruction of Vijaynagar Empire. Many temples and south Indian Hindu population became their target. They accumulated vast treasures from there. The Bahmani Dynasty lasted for two centuries. In 1527 it fragmented into five small states - Bijapur
, Berar and Bidar
Ala-ud-din Bahman who was definitely an important name of the Bahmani Dynasty, renamed Daulatabad as Fatahabad. Ala-ud-din Bahman Shah was advised by a group of eight ministers. Mohammed Shah succeeded Ala-ud-din Bahman Shah in 1358. He was better known as organizer of Bahmani Kingdom. He renovate the Silver throne with 'Takht-e Firoza', the Turquoise. He constructed "Jama Masjid" in Gulbarga Fort and "Shah Bazaar Masjid" in Gulbarga town. He invaded Tilangana and thus took Bahmani Dynasty to the further level of maturity.
Aladdin Mujahid Shah ascended the throne in1375 He only ruled for three years. He was murdered Masud Khan and Daud Khan. From 1378 to 1422 the Bahmani Empire was under the rule of Daud Shah, Mohammed Shah II, Ghiyath ud-din, Shams-ud-din and Taj ud-din Firuz Shah. Mohammed Shah II's reign of 19 years was one of the peaceful periods in the whole Bahmani history. Ghiyath-ud-din was blinded and imprisoned. After shams-ud-din Firuz Shah ascended the throne. He started construction of an Observatory on the chain of hills Balaghat. Ahmad Shah, son of Bahman Shah ascended the throne in 1422. Ahmed Shah attacked Vijaynagar and over powered Vijayaraya. He also fought against the Sultan of Malwa, Gujarat
and the Hindu rajas of the Konkon. During his reign the capital of Bahmani kingdom was shifted to Bidar, now called Ahmedabad. He constructed a Tomb in the name of Gesu Daraz, the Sufi saint deeply related to the Bahmani kingdom at Gulbarga.
His eldest son Alauddin II succeeded Ahmed Shah in 1435. He proved himself as the successful Sultan. The next ruler Humayun Shah was a very cruel man. On Humayun's death his son Ahmed as Nizam-ud-din Ahmed III succeeded the throne. It was during the tenure of Shams-ud-din Muhammad Shah III, the famine of Bijapur spreaded over the Deccan. Mahmud Gawan was the prime minister during this period. He was one of the first ministers to order a systematic measurement of land, fixing boundaries of villages and towns and making a thorough enquiry into the assessment of revenue in medieval India. 1463 to 1482 this long tenure ship of Muhammad Shah Bahmani, the Bahmani Empire started weakening its strength. During his tenure the Deccan divided into five parts.
Next set of rulers of the Bahmani Dynesty like the Shihab-ud-din Mahmud, Ahmed Shah IV, Ala-ud din Shah, Wali-ul-Lah Shah and the last ruler of Bahmani Kingdom Kalim-ul lah Shah spent much of their time indulging in entertainments. Shihab-ud-din spent so much money that he had to extract jewels from the famous Turquoise throne. Qasim Barid forced Shihab-ud-din to make him prime minister. Qasim Barid was entitled with Barid-ul-mumalik during Shihab-ud-din's reign. Malik Ahmad Nizamul-mulk revolted during this time and he named his newly made capital Ahmadnagar after himself. As Ahmad Nizam died Amir Barid, son of Qasim Barid put Ahmad Shah on the throne. Amir Barid indeed was a very clever person. Amir was very careful that king should not leave the palace. He actually set about to spoil the life and morals of Ahmad Shah. Ahmad Shah was forced to breakup the ancient crown of the Bahmanis. A ray of hope has opened on Amir Barid's wish to become the king after the death of Ahmad Shah. But Ala-ud-din son of Ahmad Shah was crowned. He was dethroned with the conspiracy of Amir Barid.
Amir Barid put Waliullah son of Mahmud shah on the throne. He was imprisoned and lived on bread and cloths given to him. As Amir Barid began to make love with Waliullah's queen, Waliulla resisted. He was poisoned soon after.
Kalimullah son of Mahmud Shah was the last king of Bahmani Dynasty. Amir Barid closely guarded him. A new political force appeared as Zahir-ud-din Babur came to India. After Kalimullah his son Ilhamullah proceeded to Mecca.
Thus the Bahmani Dynasty came to an end. Amir Barid has played an influential role in the decline of the Bahmani Dynasty.