(Last Updated on : 29-07-2017)
Tiger reserves in India are protected areas dedicated to the protection of tigers in the country.
It is important to note that 70 percent of the tigers in the world are present in India. Tigers are considered to be a cardinal part of any forest
ed area and ecosystem. Bengal tigers
are known to be present at the top of the food
chain. They have ecological, scientific, economic
, aesthetic and cultural
values. They have exceptional capability to catch prey. The count of tigers was 1,411 in the year 2006. This count increased to 1,706 in the year 2011, which further increased to 2,226 in the year 2014. The records of World Wildlife Fund
and Global Tiger Forum highlight 3891 wild tigers in the year 2016.
History of Tiger Reserves in India
When the tiger population was in danger, the Government of India
tried to locate tigers in the dark areas of forests. Project Tiger
was launched by the government in 1973 to save the endangered species
called tigers. During 1973-1974, there were nine reserves in India. At present, there are 50 tiger reserves in India.
Management and Aim of Tiger Reserves in India
The state forestry
departments handle about 53,547.5 square kilometers of the declared reserves in India. These reserves are administered under Project Tiger. Tiger reserves in India aim to maintain viable populations of Bengal tigers, which are dependent on protection. However, poaching and surreptitious killing of tigers is a major setback and a serious hindrance to the protective measures executed in the tiger reserves. Tiger reserves in India are upgraded and revamped at appropriate times, with the introduction of necessary inputs.
Different Tiger Reserves in India
Some of the much-visited and much-admired tiger reserves in India include the Jim Corbett Tiger Reserve
Tiger Reserve, Kaziranga National Park
, Kanha Tiger Reserve
, Periyar Tiger Reserve
and Ranthambore National Park
. Jim Corbett Tiger Reserve is situated in three districts of Uttarakhand
. It is spread over an area of about 1288.31 square kilometers. Royal Bengal tigers and Asiatic elephant
s are the most popular animals
of the reserve. Sunderbans Tiger Reserve is situated in the state
of West Bengal
. It is spread over an area of about 2,585 square kilometers. It has the distinction of being the largest estuarine sanctuary
in the world. Littoral forest in Sunderbans Tiger Reserve is the ecological habitat of tigers. Apart from tigers, aquatic and semi-aquatic animals
are found in Sunderbans Tiger Reserve. A national park namely, Kaziranga National Park
and Nagaon districts
was designated as a tiger reserve in 2006. It has the highest density of tigers among the protected areas in the world. Kanha Tiger Reserve is located in Madhya Pradesh
. It is spread over an area of about 940 square kilometers. It serves as a home to Bengal tiger, Indian leopard
s, sloth bear
, barasingha, etc. Periyar Tiger Reserve is situated in Thekkady
. It is spread over an area of about 925 square kilometers. It is a home to rare, endemic and endangered flora and fauna
. Ranthambore National Park is situated in Sawai Madhopur
. Project Tiger was initiated in the park in 1973. Accordingly, an area of about 60 square miles was declared as a tiger sanctuary.
Other Tiger Reserves in India
Some of the other tiger reserves in India are Buxa Tiger Reserve
, Valmiki Tiger Reserve
, Melghat Tiger Reserve
and Anamalai Tiger Reserve.