Peasant Movement for Indigo Cultivation
One of the most popular events of peasant revolt was the conflict in indigo cultivation in Bengal. During 1859-60, the peasants were forced to cultivate indigo and sell them at cheaper rates to the British. The cultivation of indigo would make their lands infertile and bare forever. Upon refusal, the peasants were tortured and beaten, ruthlessly and brutally, so as to compel them to cultivate indigo. Along with the support of intelligentsia of Bengal, the peasants revolted and refused from cultivating indigo, as a result of their frustration and anger. The government was compelled to appoint a commission for investigation and mitigation of the system. But still, the conflict could not be solved and the oppression of British and resistance of peasants continued.
Peasant Movements in Bihar and Bengal
The indigo peasants of Bihar revolted in large scale in Darbhanga and Champaran in 1866-68. Once again unrest broke out amidst peasants in 1870's in East Bengal. The powerful and cunning Zamindars freely took recourse to ejection, harassment, illegal seizure of property, including crops and chattels and extortions, and large-scale use of force to increase rents and to prevent the peasants from acquiring occupancy rights. The Bengal peasants also had a long tradition of resistance stretching back to 1782, when the peasants of North Bengal had rebelled against the East India Company.
From 1872 to 1876, the peasants united and formed a union to impose a No Rent policy and fought against the Zamindars and their agents. It was stopped only when the government suppressed the peasants' acts of violence. This created a situation of uneasiness and unrest amongst the peasants and it ended when the government promised to take some action on the Zamindari oppression.
Peasant Movements in Maharashtra
A major agrarian unrest took place in Pune and Ahmednagar -districts of Maharashtra in 1875. In Maharashtra, the British government had directly settled the revenue with the peasants. At the same time, it increased the rates of revenue so high that it was impossible to pay the revenue and they had no option left other than borrowing the money from the moneylenders who charged high interest rates. More and more land got mortgaged and sold out to the moneylenders, who gave utmost efforts to achieve the land at legal and illegal terms. Peasant patience got exhausted by the end of the year1875 and huge agrarian riots took place. Police failed in meeting the fury of peasants' resistance which was suppressed only when the whole military force at Pune took the field against them. Once again the modern intelligentsia of Maharashtra supported the peasants' demands. But it pointed out that the source of misery of peasants was high revenue rates and government's incapabilities to provide loan at cheaper rates.
Peasant Movements in Kerala and Assam
Peasant unrest also broke out in several other parts of country such as North Kerala and Assam. The situation provoked in Assam because of high land revenue assessment. The peasants refused to pay enhanced revenue demands to the landlords and fought against the land revenue collectors to seize their lands. The situation worsened and Police had to mobilise their network to suppress the peasants. Many peasants were killed mercilessly and brutally in the riots. These movements or riots of peasants did not create any threat to the British rule, but proved that the Indian peasants' reactions were instant and spontaneous to every situation. The Peasants always resisted the efforts of the British to get control and power in the name of maintaining law and order. Thus, in practicality, the illiterate and ignorant people performed acts of appreciation against the menace of the increasing British colonialism. Their faith, their courage and heroism, their willingness to make immense sacrifices were no match against the imperialist power armed with the latest weapons and the resources of a worldwide empire.
The popular movements and rebellions of the 19th century did, however, reveal the immense sources of resistance to imperialism that lay dormant among the Indian people. Later by the 1930s, the condition of the peasants started to improve all over the nation due to gradual political and economic developments. This became possible due to the various efforts undertaken by the Indian National Congress during that period.
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