The historical details of Sambalpur are recorded from the period, when Samudragupta defeated king Mahendra of Kosala, the kingdom that included Sambalpur in 4th century. During the 5th and 6th century B.C the district of Sambalpur came under the jurisdiction of the Sarabhapuriya. However the Sarbhapuriyas were not destined to retain their sovereignty for long and the Panduvansi king Trivaradeva ousted the Sarabhapuriya and became the sole authority of Sambalpur district. Towards the close of 9th century king Janmeyjaya I Mahabhavagupta extended his empire, which encompassed the modern districts of Sambalpur and Bolangir. Hence forward, his dynasty came to be known as the Somavansi dynasty. During the final years of the Somavansi dynasty, the Kalucharis of Rajputana dominated the pages of the history of Sambalpur district. However in a blood-spattered atrocious battle the Gandas defeated the Somavansis and occupied Sambalpur.
As far as the history of Sambalpur is concerned a number of indigenous and the foreign kings have colonized the district. During the middle of the 14th century Ramai Dev placed the foundation of the Chauhan rule in Western Orissa and he was at the helm of administration of the entire western Orissa including the present district of Sambalpur. But the Chauhan kings had to yield before the Maratha ascendancy and as is revealed by the British history of Sambalpur that during the British supremacy, the Marathas were the existing native kings in Orissa and when the British received the grant of Diwani of Orissa, they are at the continuous strife with the Marathas. The British occupied Sambalpur on 2nd January 1804 and sanctioned as the British administrative unit in 1817. The history of Sambalpur in the subsequent years witnessed the movements of the Kandhas and Binjhal Zamindars against the British and their puppet ruler in Sambalpur was Rani Mohan Kumari.
During the British supremacy in Orissa, Sambalpur activated as the nodal agency where the spirit of nationalism imbued the inhabitants to participate in the national struggle. The modern history of Sambalpur is marked with the mass involvement in the Indian struggle for independence headed by Surendra Sai.
History of Sambalpur states that in the post independence period the former princely district of Sambalpur was subdivided into four separate administrative districts namely Sambalpur, Bargarh, Jharsuguda and Deogarh prior to the notification of Revenue & Excise Department Resolution No 14993/R Dtd 31.03.93 and Resolution No 56413/R Dtd 22.12.93.Bargarh district comprising Barhgarh and Padampur Subdivision started functioning with effect from 1.4.1993.Jharsuguda and Deogarh District started functioning w.e.f. 1.1.94.
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