The rock edicts of Ashoka and the inscriptions on the pillars constitute to be a significant source of the history of Ganjam. Among the 13 rock edicts of Ashoka, one was found in the present area of the Ganjam district, which clearly indicates that the present tract of Ganjam was a part of the Kalinga Empire, which was under the jurisdiction of Ashoka. As the history of Gajapati depicts, Ashoka conquered the entire part of Ganjam including the Jaugada Parbat, where the rock edict of Ashoka has been deciphered in 261 B.C. The antiquity of the Ganjam district is evident from the Ashokan inscription, which was the only basis of the historical records of the ancient Ganjam. However after the disappearances of the Mauryan empire and the downfall of their absolute supremacy, the Ganjam region was also disappeared from the political scenario of Orissa and was in a dark oblivion till in 1761, it was recognized as The French Bussy. Therefore the authentic historical records of Ganjam district during the episodes of absolute disappearance are not recorded.
According to some critics and historians, the history of Ganjam district was accounted with establishment of the French colony in its core. When the French arrived, Ganjam was subdivided into a several parts each owned by a number of federal chiefs. The French ultimately realized those areas as a tribute from the federal chiefs. But the French were not destined to be at the helm of the administration of the Ganjam district for long and shortly the English invaded the French settlement in Deccan and finally became victorious. Consequentially the French had to cede all their jurisdictional territory to the British including Ganjam, who annexed it to the English territory in 1759. In 1794 , with the establishment of the Collector Office of the English, commenced the historical era of the British imperialism in Ganjam.
As the history of Ganjam recounts, early in the 19th Century Ganjam was the hotbed of Indian politics owing to the revolt of the native zamindars against the British officers. Though the British crushed the rebellion, there was an intense ill feeling among the Native chiefs and the British authorities in Ganjam. However this political dissension among the zamindars and the British chiefs continued for long till 1836.
At the threshold of the 19th century the political struggle of the native inhabitants assume the hue of a regional and linguistic diversity. Following the historical records of the Ganjam district, the struggle for the amalgamation of Oriya tracts was keenly organized in Ganjam and in 1896, Oriya was recognized as the official language. The present area of Ganjam was in the Madras Presidency during the British period and consisted with only three Government Taluks, 16 large proprietary estates, 35 minor Zamidaries. ']
Following the historical documents of Ganjam, it has been deciphered that the headquarter of the district of Ganjam has undergone several changes and has been shifted from one place to another. In 1855, the original headquarter of Ganjam was abandoned owing to the eruption of the epidemic fever in the town for which near about 80% of the population of the town was reduced. Temporarily the capital was shifted to Gopalpur and then to the Berhampore and finally to Chatrapur around 1902.
However the English chiefs were not ready to manage the administrative activities of Ganjam as a subdivision of Madras Presidency. The district of Ganjam was far away from the Madras Presidency and the British do not find it easy to control the administrative activities far from Madras. Hence they wanted to merge it with the province of Orissa. The district of Ganjam was separated from the Madras Presidency and was merged with Orissa Province in the year of 1936 as is deciphered from the available historical documents of Ganjam. The reorganized district of Ganjam , which is annexed with the Orissa province is constituted of whole of Ghumusor, Chatrapur and Baliguda divisions, part of old Berhampur taluk, part of old Ichapur taluk, part of Parlakhemundi plains area and the whole of Parlakhemundi agency area in the old Chicacola division.
According to the recent available documents and the modified plans of the state Government of Orissa, from the present district of Ganjam is separated 7 blocks of Paralakhemundi Subdivision, which is merged with the newly formed district of Gajapati. Hence the present district of Ganjam is constituted with 3 subdivisions, 22 blocks, 14 Tahasils.