Geography of Gondwana
The landscape of the region is rugged and hilly. The region consists of mostly Pre-Cambrian rocks with some areas dated to Permian and Triassic periods. Some parts of the region are over laden with alluvium and in the western part it is over laden with igneous rocks of the Deccan Traps.
The region has a hot and semi-arid climate. The natural vegetation of the region is dry monsoon forest or monsoon scrub forest. Large parts of the region are covered with forests. The forests also have several national parks, which consists of tiger populations.
History of Gondwana
As per history, three main Gond kingdoms existed between 14th and 18th centuries. The three kingdoms were Garha-Mandla which occupied the upper Narmada River Valley; Deogarh-Nagpur which occupied the Kanhan River and upper Wainganga River valleys and Chanda-Sirpur which occupied the present-day Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, and eastern Adilabad districts. The three Gondi principalities of Garha-Mandla, Deogarh, and Chanda-Sirpur were nominally subjected to the Mughal emperors.
In 1595, the Mughals established governors at Paunar in Wardha District and Kherla in Betul District. Though the Mughals hemmed in the Gond states but the Gond kings had practical independence within their own dominions. The territories of Gondwana blossomed under the peaceful leadership of Gond kings. However, the fall of the Mughals and the rise of the Bundela and Maratha powers brought misfortune upon them.
Chhatar Sal, the Bundela chieftain, deprived the Mandla principality of part of the Vindhyan Plateau and the Narmada Valley in the 17th century. Then in the year 1733, Bundelkhand was invaded by Maratha Peshwa and by 1735, Saugor was already in the grasp of Marathas. In 1742 the Peshwa advanced to Mandla and exacted tribute. Garha-Mandla remained a Maratha dependency till the year 1781. In 1743 Raghoji Bhonsle of Berar established himself at Nagpur, and by 1751, the territories of Deogarh, Chanda, and Chhattisgarh were also conquered by him.