Indian Independence Movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. It involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and rebellions between 1857 and India`s emergence as a unified nation-state on August 15, 1947. Indian Freedom Struggle
incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from rule of British East India Company
and the British Government in India and form the nation-state of India. It involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and rebellions between 1857 and India`s emergence as a unified nation-state on August 15, 1947.
Wahabi Movement was a part of the Indian freedom struggle
as it offered a serious threat to British supremacy in India in the 19th century. The movement was led by Syed Ahmed Barelvi, who was greatly influenced by the teaching of Abdul Wahab of Arabia and the preaching of Delhi
saint Shah Walliullah. The Wahabi Movement essentially condemned all changes and innovations to Islam
. It was a revivalist movement which held that the return to the true spirit of Islam was the only way to get rid of the socio- political oppression
Satyagraha which can be loosely translated as "insistence on truth"- Satya (truth); Agraha (insistence) "soul force" or "truth force" is a particular philosophy and practice within the broader overall category generally known as non-violent resistance or civil resistance. The very term "Satyagraha" was developed and coined by Mahatma Gandhi. He deployed Satyagraha in the Indian independence movement and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa.
Khaksar Movement, also known as the Khaksar Tehrik movement, was a social movement that was established in the year 1931 by Allama Mashriqi. It was based in Lahore during the dominion of the British supremacy in undivided India. The objective of the Khaksar movement was to attain independence for the nation from the rule of the British Empire in India
. The movement also aimed to establish a Hindu Muslim government in the country. Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi, also known as Allama Mashriqi, a Muslim intellectual revisited the principles for self-conduct and self-reform which he had laid out in his treatise titled Tazkira in the year 1924. He included these into a second treatise entitled Isharat. This served as the foundation for the Khaksar movement.
After the British government decided in April 1914 to stop the deportation of political prisoners
to the Andamans (and subsequently a majority of them already sent were repatriated to the Indian jails by September 1914), the revolutionary activities again flared up in 1915 onwards which were more authoritative in intensity, serious in nature and larger in dimension. The prevailing laws, the existing judicial system, the procedure of trial and the Indian jails, all weapons of the administrative set up, were found highly inadequate to contain the `terrorist` activities and penalize the revolutionaries. As a result, the British not only ordained new legislations, but also changed the judicial procedure of trial so as to reduce it only to a semblance of trial. The gates of the Cellular Jail
in the Andamans were reopened to imprison and punish the political prisoners. This time, among other revolutionaries convicted in other cases, Punjabis in general and Sikhs in particular, primarily convicted in fake trials known as Lahore Conspiracy Case and other related cases, were deported to the Andamans. These revolutionaries, well settled in various countries like Canada, America, Philippines, Burma, Hong Kong, China and Japan, had come to the country with a missionary zeal to wage war against the British Empire in India. They were either leaders or members of the Ghadr Party, or they were influenced by its ideology and patriotic fervency. To know about them thus, it would be essential to know the Ghadr Movement, which took the shape of a dynamic movement.
Arzi Hukumat E Azad Hind
Arzi Hukumat E Azad Hind, meaning the Provisional Government of Free India, was also known as Azad Hind (Free India). It was a provisional government of India that was founded in the year 1943 in Singapore. Arzi Hukumat E Azad Hind was among the political movement that originated during the 1940s away from India. Its objective was to gain support of the Axis powers to attain freedom for India from rule of the British Empire. Azad Hind was established by Indian nationalists who were exiled from the country during World War II. They developed the provisional government in Singapore with the political, military and monetary support from Imperial Japan in order to fight against British. Netaji Subash Chandra Bose
aimed to form the Provisional Government of Azad Hind in Germany after the carrying out the task of restructuring the Indian Independence League, initiating preparations for modernizing the army and after organizing a triumphant campaign to assemble the support of the various Indian communities present in Southeast Asia.
Royal Indian Navy Mutiny
Royal Indian Navy Mutiny or the Bombay Mutiny was the revolt of the Indian sailors. The sailors who belonged to the Royal Indian Navy on board ship and shore establishments at Bombay harbour went for a strike and organised a mutiny on 18th February 1946. The whole mutiny involved 78 ships, 20 shore establishments and 20,000 sailors. This revolt subsequently came to be known as the RIN revolt. It started as a protest against their general conditions.