(Last Updated on : 29/04/2013)
Himachal Pradesh is located in the western Himalayas
. It is bordered by Tibet and the states of Uttaranchal, Haryana
and Jammu and Kashmir
and covers an area of 21495 sq metres its capital being the magnificent hill station Shimla. It has exotic snow peaks, striking valleys, glorious green hill-slopes, snow-capped mountains and gushing streams. The state government is trying to make Himachal Pradesh the flower basket of the world tourists from all over the world are attracted by the hills of Himachal Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh is full of hill resorts, pilgrimages, adventure sports destinations, and wildlife that attract a wide range of tourist traffic. Himachal Pradesh is one of the most important tourist destinations in India Himachal is known as the foot bowl of the country with orchards scattered all over the place.
History of Himachal Pradesh
The history of Himachal Pradesh dates back to the Vedic period later the Aryans
assimilated the indigenous peoples. The earliest inhabitants of Himachal Pradesh were the Dasas In 550 AD, the Hindu Rajput
families gained supremacy over the North Western districts of Brahmour and Chamba(the princely states created between the 6th and 16th centuries). The most powerful kingdom was the Kangra
, where the Katoch Rajputs held various attacks before surrendering themselves to the Mughals in the 16th century. In the 17th century, the newly empowered Sikh
community added to the threat posed by the Mughals. In the 18th century the Sikhs under Maharaja Ranjit Singh
gained strongholds in Western Himachal and Kullu and Spiti. After the Independence, the regions bordering Punjab
were integrated and named as Himachal Pradesh. With Independence, the Chief Commissioner`s province of H.P. came into being on 15th April 1948. Himachal became a part of India on 26th January, 1950 with the implementation of the Constitution of India.
On 1st November 1956 Himachal Pradesh was recognized as a Union Territory and in 1966 the state was formed as it is today and Shimla
became its capital. On 18th December, 1970 the State of Himachal Pradesh Act was passed by Parliament and the new state came into being on 25th January, 1971.
Geography of Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is spread over 55,673 square kilometres. The state is enclosed on the North by Jammu and Kashmir
, on the South- East by Uttar Pradesh
and on the West by Punjab. Himachal Pradesh is situated in the core of western Himalayas. Himachal is situated between 30"22` and 30"12` north latitude and between 75"47` and 79"4` east longitude. It is a highly mountainous state with an elevation ranging from about 350 metres to 6,000 metres. The capital of Himachal Pradesh is Shimla. The major rivers of Himachal Pradesh are Chenab
, Ravi, Beas
Economy of Himachal Pradesh
The economy of Himachal Pradesh consists mainly of agriculture. The country`s horticulture is making a name even abroad. 93% of the population is engaged in agriculture. Its road system has emerged as the best and its infrastructure for industrial development is well laid.
Suitable agricultural machinery and good breeds of cattle, sheep and poultry are introduced here. Well-equipped soil testing laboratories, dairy farms and agricultural workshops were established at various centres. There is an Agriculture university at Palampur
. Himachal Pradesh ranks fourth in respect of per capita income among the states of the Indian Union.
Demographics of Himachal Pradesh
As per the2011 census the population of Himachal Pradesh is 68, 56, 509. The sex ratio is 974 females per thousand males. There are a multitude of races, cultures and communities in Himachal. The people live in a relatively closed society. The density of population per square kilometre is 123.
Education of Himachal Pradesh
It was in 1969, that the Himachal Pradesh Board of School Education came into existence through the Act No.14 of 1968. Till 1982, the headquarters of the Board was at Shimla. From there it was shifted to Dharamshala in Kangra District
in 1983. The Board at present conducts examinations for the 8th, 10th, Plus One and Plus Two classes. The Board is also conducting the departmental examination like J.B.T., T.T.C and P.V.T.C.
Himachal Pradesh has one of the highest literacy rates in India. Its literacy rate according to 2011 census is 83.78%. Government is strictly seeing that all children are getting the opportunity for primary education. Himachal has now become the first state in India to make elementary education accessible to every child. There are over 10,000 primary schools, 1,000 secondary schools and more than 1,300 high schools in Himachal. The state has several reputed educational institutes for higher studies. Some of the pioneer institutes in the state are The Himachal Pradesh University; the NIT Hamirpur Government has decided to start three nursing colleges to develop the health system in the state.