(Last Updated on : 28/08/2013)
Embroidery Work in India is carried out in Punjab
, Uttar Pradesh
, West Bengal
and many other regions. Buttonhole or Blanket Stitch, Running Stitch, Cross Stitch, Satin Stitch and Chain Stitch are some of basic techniques of stitching used in Indian Embroidery. It has also given way to machine stitching with the advent of the industrial era. There are diverse varieties of Indian embroidery.
Types of Indian Embroidery
Embroidery can be used in diversified manner according to the design that is stitched on top of or through the foundation fabric, and also by the relationship of stitch placement to the fabric. 'Mirror work', 'Zari' work of Hyderabad, 'Gota' work of Rajasthan, 'zardozi' of Delhi, 'phulkari' of Punjab, 'Chamba rumals', 'Kasuti embroidery' of Karnataka 'Chikan embroidery', 'Kantha embroidery' of West Bengal, etc are some of the significant classifications of Indian embroidery. In case of free embroidery, one applies the designs without paying much importance to the weave of the underlying fabric. Moreover, another classification of Indian embroidery is the cross-stitch counted-thread embroidery. This particular type is basically used in foundation fabric. This type of embroidery can be more easily worked on a smooth weave foundation fabric including embroidery specially woven cotton canvas, linen fabrics. Since 19th century Printed as well as Hand-Printed Canvases came into use where the printed images served as the colour guide that eliminated the need for counting threads. Both these canvases are suited for pictorial designs deriving from the Berlin wool work.
The embroidery on wool of Cashmere on loom-wrought and with the needle is universally famous. The Cashmere shawl trade is an old art. The cone pattern, with its flowing curves and minute diaper of flowers characterise these shawls. The ornamentation of the shawls is distinguished by different names. The border is disposed along the whole length and it may be single, double, triple. Pala means the whole of the embroidery at the two ends, or at the heads of the shawl. The chain runs above and below the principal mass of the pala. The dhour is situated on the inside of the hashia and zangir. Mattan is the decorated part of the ground and the butha is the generic term for flowers specifically applied alone to the cone ornament. When there is a double row, the butha is called dokad, it is called if it is upto five and tukadar above five.
Muslin is embroidered at Patna
in coloured floss silk. Rich embroidery is also seen at Hyderabad in coloured silk thread and gold and silver. The embroidery of Nauanagar, and Gondal in Kathiwar is in coloured silk thread. Gold is also used in embroidery which is a Persian style. The embroidered native apparel of Cashmere, Amritsar
, Lahore, Delhi, Lucknow
, Surat and Mumbai
, is prized all over India; and that of Vishakapatnam has an extensive reputation in the south. Carpets originated in embroidery and they were first used like embroideries for hangings and palls.
In many parts of India muslin is beautifully embroidered with green beetle wings and gold. The embroidered leather work of Gujarat is well known.
of Lucknow is very popular. chikankari is now being done on various fabrics and are available in various colours too. Phulkari
, an embroidery technique of Punjab is flower working on shawls and head scarfs.
Applique work is seen in Orissa
. It is basically a patch work in which coloured pieces are cut and sewn on a plain cloth. Embroidery of Kutch is known as Aribharat is very attractive. Embroidery of Lambada tribes of Andhra Pradesh is worth mentioning here. It is done on fine cotton or polyester. Kantha stitch is practiced in Bihar and West Bengal. Here the threads are picked from old materials.
Materials for Indian Embroidery
The materials used in Indian embroidery like the fabrics and yarns vary from one place to another. Silk, wool and linen are predominantly used for thousands of years for both fabric and yarn. In the recent times, the thread used in traditional embroidery is manufactured in rayon, cotton, as well as traditional wool, silk and linen. In the techniques of canvas work, huge quantities of thread are buried on the back of the work to use more materials but provide a sturdier and more substantial finished textile. Further, in surface as well as canvas work techniques, an embroidery frame is generally used for stretching the material as it ensures that any sort of pattern distortion.