(Last Updated on : 20/07/2013)
Indian Freedom Struggle in during the rule of British East India Company that is from the year 1751 to 1857 in the first 100 years, the revolutions gained a momentum towards Independence.
The first organised confrontational movements were in Bengal, but they later took to the political stage in the form of a mainstream movement in the then newly formed Indian National Congress
(INC), with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service
examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil. In the first phase of British Rule which was gained by the British East India Company
after long years anarchy and the political confrontations with the French East India Company
and Dutch East India Company
, there were many revolutions organized sporadically in different regions of India. Some of them were Shantal Rebellion, Chuar Rebellion
and the Sepoy Mutiny.
Before the British came to India the Santhals resided peacefully in the hilly districts of Cuttack
, Dhalbhum, Manbhum, Barabhum, Chhotanagpur, Palamau
, Midnapur, Bankura District
and Birbhum District
. They leaded a peaceful life by clearing the forest and also engaged themselves in hunting for subsistence. But when the British claimed their rights on the lands of the Santhals, they peacefully went to reside in the hills of Rajamahal. After some few years the Britishers and their counterparts started claiming as this new Santhal owned land theirs. The British were helped by the local Zamnidars, who were with them for their own selfish needs.
The simple and honest Santhals were cheated and turned into slaves by the zamindars the money lenders who first appeared to them as mere business men who gave them loans. These loans however hard a Santhal tried to repay never ended in fact through corrupt measures of the money lenders it multiplied to an amount for which a generation of the santhal family had to work as slaves. Furthermore the Santhali women who worked under labour contractors were disgraced and used. This loss of freedom that once which they enjoyed turned them into rebels and finally they took oath to launch a Rebellion on these axis of evil, which was done on 30th June, 1855. The attack against the British was launched by two rebel leaders, Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu. Although the Rebellion was brutally suppressed, it marked a great change in the colonial rule and policy. The day is still celebrated among the Shantal community with great respect and spirit for the thousands of the Shantal martyrs who sacrificed their lives along with their two celebrated leaders to win freedom from the rule of the Jamindars and the British operatives.
In 1781, in response to the need for revenue to fight the war in Madras against Hyder Ali, Warren Hastings, the Governor-General of India, had pressed Chait Singh (d.1810), ruler of Benaras, to make additional revenue payments in 1778 and 1779 of five lakhs as a sort of war tax. In 1780, Sir Eyre Coote (1726-1783) had requested that Chait Singh be asked to supply troops 2000 in number. After a period of no response, Chait Singh offered 500 infantry and 500 cavalry troops. Hastings felt this to be an insufficient response and in July 1781 left for Varanasi
to "discipline" Chait Singh.
Moamoria rebellion was the rebellion began in the year 1769 and ended 1806. It was the time when the British East India Company
captured Bengal, Bihar
after the Battle of Plassey
(1757). Moamoria rebellion was the armed conflict between the Morans, the supporters of the Moamara Sattra, and the Ahom
kings. This civil conflict led the British East India Company to interfere in the political scenario of the Assam
. This led to widespread popular discontent against the Ahom king and the nobles and to two periods in which the Ahom king lost control of the capital. Retaking the capital was accompanied by a massacre of subjects, leading to a steep depopulation of large tracts. The Ahom king failed to retake the entire kingdom, a portion in the northeast, Bengmara, became virtually independent.
Chuar Rebellion was occurred in 1798-99. Chuar Rebellion was a massive rebellion that broke out in South-West Bankura district
and in North-West Midnapore district
. The British East India Company and some Zamindars of Midnapore were engaged in curbing the rebellion ruthlessly. The Local feudal lords called the tribal people as pigs. In Bengali, they are termed as "Char". That is why the name of the rebellion is Chuar Rebillion.
Wahabi Movement was a part of the Indian freedom struggle
as it offered a serious threat to British supremacy in India in the 19th century. The movement was led by Syed Ahmed Barelvi, who was greatly influenced by the teaching of Abdul Wahab of Arabia and the preaching of Delhi
saint Shah Walliullah. The Wahabi Movement essentially condemned all changes and innovations to Islam
. It was a revivalist movement which held that the return to the true spirit of Islam was the only way to get rid of the socio- political oppression