Early Life of Jahandar Shah
Jahandar Shah was the son of Bahadur Shah I. He was born on 10 May 1664. When Bahadur Shah I died on 27 February 1712 he and his brother declared themselves as emperors. However, on 27 February 1712 Azim us Shan died in a battle. Thus, Jahandar Shah could rule for more eleven months. He was a prosperous trader and before succeeding to the throne he had sailed in the Indian Ocean. Later he was also appointed as the Subedar of Sindh.
Rule of Jahandar Shah
Jahandar Shah ascended the throne on March 29, 1712 with the help of Zulfiqar Khan. Zulfiqar Khan was his minister. He led a very reckless and frivolous life. His court was enlivened by dancing and other means of entertainment. He devoted his life to Lal Kanwar who hailed from the family of musicians. When Jahandar Shah ascended the throne he gave her the status of a queen. She was made the empress and was given the title of Imtiyaz Mughal. This act of Jahandar Shah was greatly opposed by Aurangzeb's surviving daughter Zinat Un Nissa. The emperor spent most of his time in the company of Lal Kanwar. The queen exercised considerable influence over him. He was also accompanied by her to the battlefield. Jahandar Shah thus neglected his duties and the entire administration went into the hands of the relatives of Lal Kanwar. They mishandled the state of affairs. Muhammed Saadatullah Khan I, the Nawab of the Carnatic rejected the rule of Jahandar Shah. He initiated a campaign calling Jahandar Shah as an inappropriate ruler of the Mughal Dynasty.
Jahandar Shah faced many problems from Farrukhsiyar, grandson of Bahadur Shah, and the second son of Azim Ush Shan. After the death of his father Farrukhsiyar had declared himself as the emperor. He with the help and support of Syed Brothers defeated Jahandar Shah in the battle at Agra on 10 January 1713. Jahandar Shah along with Lal Kanwar escaped and fled to Delhi. There they sought help from Zulfiqar Khan who instead of helping imprisoned them to gain the goodwill of the new emperor. Jahandar Shah was kept in confinement for a month. On 11 February 1713, he was murdered in the prison and then buried in the vault of Tomb of Humayun.