Entry to Indian Civil Service
The competitive examination for the entry into the Indian Civil Service (ICS) was unified for the Diplomatic, the Indian, the Home and the Colonial Services. According to the rules, the candidates appearing for the exams had to be between the age of 21 and 24. A total of 1,900 marks were attainable for the entrance examination. Successful candidates underwent more than 1 year probation in England, according to whether they took the Indian or the London examination. The candidates were then trained at the University of Cambridge, the School of Oriental Studies in London or the University of Oxford.
By the year 1920, 5 methods for entry into the higher civil service were present, which were open competitive examinations in London; separate competitive examinations in India; nomination in India to satisfy provincial and communal representation; Promotion from the Provincial Civil Service; appointments from the bar which by one fourth of the posts, out of the total posts reserves for the Indian Civil Service were to be filled from the bar.
Types of Indian Civil Service
During the formative phase of direct rule British administration, there were 2 exclusive groups of civil servants. The higher employees who entered into agreement with the British East India Company were known as Covenanted Servants, while those servants who did not sign such agreements or covenants were identified as Uncovenanted Servants. The latter group usually was placed in the lower positions. This classification between the Covenanted Servants and the Uncovenanted Servants practically ended with the constitution of the Imperial Civil Service of India, which was based on the suggestion of the Public Service Commission, 1886- 1887. Although the term covenanted was continually used of anyone in a salaried position with a long term contract. Later the Imperial Civil Service was renamed as the Civil Service of India, but the name Indian Civil Service (ICS) continued. The acronym ICS continued to be used to denote the covenanted civil servants.
During the latter half of the 19th century, a 3rd group functioned that was identified as the Statutory Civil Service. It was disbanded by the beginning of the 1890s. To form the Statutory Civil Service group, young men from reputable and wealthy Indian families were recruited. This service was replaced by the Provincial Civil Services that was comprised on the basis of the suggestions of the Aitchison Commission. It contained 2 cadres, Provincial Civil Service and Subordinate Civil Service. Due to the application of the scheme of cadre organisation to the administrative departments, additional developments took place. The fundamental model of the cadre system in the civil service was accordingly established after the suggestions of the Aitchison Commission.
Operations of Indian Civil Service
In the year 1912, the Islington Commission was appointed and its report was published in 1917. Due to the effects of World War I, its recommendations had become outmoded and obsolete. This was further outdated by the August Declaration of Edwin Montagu presented before the House of Commons on August 20, 1917, which to aimed suit the local demands, the government was more concerned in providing representation to the native population of the country. By the year 1934, the administrative system in India gradually came to comprise of 7 All India Services and 5 Central Departments. These were all under the authority of the Secretary of State. Moreover, 3 Central Departments were under joint Imperial and Provincial control.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) and the Indian Police Service were in the transferred field. The control of both the services and for making appointments was reassigned from the authority of the Secretary of State to the provincial governments.
Decline of Indian Civil Service
After the year 1919, the Indian Civil Service (ICS) gradually declined due to less participation of candidates in Britain and the distrust of Indians. At the time of the Partition of India in 1947, the former Imperial Civil Service was divided between the newly formed Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
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