In ancient times, the areas of Unnao formed as a part of the Koshala Mahajanpada. Later it was included in Oudh.
After the first War of Indian Independence in the year1857, British East India Company's power has been transferred to the British Queen. According to queen's order the civil-administration was re-established in the district, which was named Unnao with the head quarters at Unnao. In the same year the Unnao town was constituted a Municipality.
Unnao is located at 26.53°N and 80.5°E. It has an average elevation of 127 meters. It is bounded on north by Hardoi district, on the east by Lucknow district, on the south by Rai Bareli and on the west bounded by Ganga.
Unnao lies in the great plains of Ganges and the land is highly fertile. The river Ganges separates Unnao from Kanpur district. Ganga and the Sai are the main rivers flowing in this district, and the other rivers are Kalyani, Tanai, Loni and Morahi. These rivers are dried up during summer. There are several swamps and lakes are found particularly in the southern and eastern part of the district.
Unnao is famous for its leather industries and leather goods. The biggest industries here are of tanneries. Topographical status of industrial area is congenial for industrial requirement. Such as totally free from residential vicinity, availability of roadways, railways and airways near to the city. Banks and the financial institutions like IDBI, PICKUP etc. are also available near the city. Unnao Industrial areas currently having 50 industries, comprising mainly of leather industries and most of them are export oriented units. The prominent industries are Mirza Tanners limited, Super house Leather Limited, Kings international limited, Rehman Exports, Zam Zam Tanners
Government and Politics
A District Magistrate belongs to an officer of Indian Administrative Service, is the head of the Unnao District. Different Government official staffs assist him.
The Superintendent of police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service, is responsible for maintaining law and order in the district.
Amusi,Lucknow is the nearest Airport to Unnao.
Kusumbi is the nearest railway station to Unnao. But it is also linked with major places like Lucknow, Kanpur, and Delhi etc.
All the roadways linked with the neighbour cities of unano district..
Unnao district is divided in to five Tehsils namely Unnao, Hasanganj, Safipur, Purwa and Bighapur. There are 16development blocks namely- Ganj Moradabad, Bangarmau, Fatehpur Chaurasi, Safipur, Miyanganj, Auras, Hasanganj, Nawabganj, Purwa, Asoha, Hilauli, Bighapur, Sumerpur, Bichia, Sikandarpur, Sirausi, Sikandarpur karan.
As per 2001 Census, Unnao had a population of 144,917. Males constitute 53% and female constitute 47% of the total population. 13% of the population is under six year of age. Unnao has an average literacy rate of 68%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy is 72% and female literacy is 63%.
The most popular Hindu festivals of Unnao are,
Karva Chauth- This festival falls after nine days of Dussehra. Married Hindu women for the safety and prosperity of their husbands hold Karva Chauth.
Annakoot- Annakoot is celebrated which is devoted to feasting and Govardhan Puja in the evening and rounded up next day by Bhaya Dooj.
Shitla Ashtami- this festival falls after eight days of Holi. It is devoted to the goddess of small pox.
Ram Navami- This festival is celebrated as Lord Ram's birthday.
Nag Panchami-In this day everyone worship the snakes.
Janmashtami- It is also an important festival of Hindu, celebrating the birthday of Lord Krishna.
Bharat Milap- It is celebrated in the month of October. It pertains to the episode of the return of Lord Ram to Ayodhya after 14 years of exile and his reunion with his brother Bharat.
Among Muslim festivals, Muharram is grandly celebrated in Unnao, which is the commemorating the martyrdom of Imam Hussain, the grandson of the Holy Prophet. The important festivals are Id-Ul-Fitr, Ramzan, Chehlum, Bara Wafat, Shah-I-Barat, and Id-Ul-Zuha.
Badarqa Harbans- The village of Badarqa Harbans lies 11 kilometer south of Unnao. It was founded in 1643 AD by the king Harbans, an official at the court of Shah Jahan, who had received a grant of 500 Bighas from the Emperor in Pargana Harha. He built a fine house here, which is a very picturesque and massive.
Baksar- This place name is derived from the Sanskrit word 'Bakasram', denoting the residence of a Baka Rakshas, who founded a town at the site of present village.
It is also said that Raja Abhai Chand, a Bais Rajput conquered the place naming it after the shrine of Bakeshwar Mahadeo and made it its capital. Now in this place every year on the full moon day of kartika, a large number of people came for the Bath Fair.
Bangarmau-According to Buddhist literature, Buddha stayed in this place for some time and preached the gospel. Now here Budhwa Mangal fair is organized on the first Tuesday of Chaitra. The villagers also organize two other fairs, namely Babu Mian Ka Mela, held on first Tuesday of Chaitra and the fair of Shitla Devi.
Daundia Khera- It is also known as Sangrampur, the name given by the Bais Rajput Abhai Chand. Here in this place he hanged a talukdar Ram Bux Singh for participating in Indian freedom struggle of 1857.
Mohan- The town is well known for its Unani Hakims, mimics and actors. To the south of the village near the Sai river, there are remains of an ancient fort.
Pariyar- It is said the in Tretaya Yug, Laxmana, brother of Raja Ram, accompanied Sita to her banishment to this place, which in consequence is known as Parihar, a Sanskrit word meaning abandonment. With the passage of time Parihar is converted to Periyar. Sita also gave birth to Luv and Kush in this place.
The place is possesses two temples, one is Balkaneshwar Nath Mahadeo, said to have been built by Luv and Kush and another is Janki temple, which is deicated to Sita.
Nawab Ganj- Nawab Ganj is lies on the Lakhnow- Kanpur Highway. It was founded in 1842 by Amin-ud-daulah, the prime minister of Avadh who built a serai and a mosque, which are still in a good condition.
Patan- Patan village possesses to a temple dedicated to Lingeshwar Mahadeo, a Tomb of Muhabbat Shah, an ancient mound ascribed to Bhars. A large fair known as 'Takia-ka -Mela, is held here on the first Thursday of Paus, in honour of Niamat Shah a disciple of Muhabbat Shah.
Safipur- Safipur lies on the Unnao-Hardoi road about 27km northwest of Unnao. It has been named after a dervesh Makhdum Shah Safi. On his death he was buried here and the place assumed the name Safipur.
A famous mausoleum over the remains of the dervish Safi was erected here. Small fairs are organized every year on the 12th and 22nd day of Rabi-ul-awwal, 20th day of Jamat-us-sani, 12th and 14th day of Rajjab. 8th day of Ramzan and 14th day of Zilhaj.
Flora and Fauna
In order to promote proper protection and conservation to the resident and migratory birds Nawab Ganj Lake and its surrounding places were declared as Nawab Ganj Bird Sanctuary in 1984. Approximately 250 species of resident and migratory birds are found rowing here.
Graylag Goose, Pintail, Common teal, Cotton teal, Red crested Pochard, Bramhini Duck, Gadwall Shoveller, Wigeon, Coot and Mallard are the migratory birds coming every year to this place. Cobra, Viper, Krait, Rat snake and Water snake are the common reptiles found here.
Prosophis Juliflora, Babul, Acacia auriculiformis, Arjun, Kanji, Siras, Neem, Bargad, Eucalyptus, Gulmohar are the common plants in Nawab Ganj Sanctuary. A deer park is also situated in the bird sanctuary, which has spotted deers and barking deers.
Mogli Water Park- Mogli Water Park is the first of its kind in Uttar Pradesh and 14th in India. It is situated on the Lucknow- Kanpur Highway No-25 and just 15 kilometer away from Unnao. It was inspired by 'Jungle Book' film. Mogli Water Park is stretched over 11 acres of lush green landscape, offers a variety of water slides, artificial lakes for boating, camels for riding all around the park, restaurants and music according to your wish.
Unnao has number of following education institutes,
Central School of Unnao
St. Jude's Inter College
Ben-Hur Public School
Kingson Inter College
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya
Manohara Smriti Mahila Mahavidyalaya.
Gouri Beeghapur Mahavidyalaya
Dayanand Subhas National College
Government Inter College.
Dayanand Vishwambhar Dayal Tripathi Krishi Vidyalaya
Raja & Rani Shankar Sahai Inter College
Atal Bihari Inter College.
Dr G Nath G Dayal Girls Inter College.
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Unnao District, Uttar Pradesh