Antique States of India
The Antique states where dominated by the Rajputs. Antique or vintage states originated during the 13th century. Their cautious integration into the Mughal military and administrative system anticipated their consequent accommodation in the British Empire. During the 16th century and 17th century, some Rajput rulers and their bards or charans developed myths of origins that recognized their rank as Kshatriyas. They legitimated their social status and political power through descent and kinship, instead occupational activity as warriors. The geographically dominance of Rajput political and social standing was mirrored in 1931 census statistics.
Under the British rule, Rajputs formed a higher percentage of the population in 4 Indian provinces and the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir than in Rajputana in the British colonial era. Several varioations of the identity of Rajputs were presented by the Malwa Plateau in central India. Ratlamand its two seceded states of Sitamau and Sailana depict the rapid political mobility and development of symbolic legitimacy of Rajputs. Various Antique Rajput states like Jaipur, Marwar-Jodhpur, Bikanerand Jaisalmer accepted the Mughal suzerainty and attained confirmation of their local control. Jaisalmer was the last Antique state to be incorporated into the Mughal system.
Successor States of India
Former Mughal territories like Hyderabad, Bengal and Awadh are regarded as the standard successor states. Some antique states like Amber-Jaipur, which was a significant part of Mughal mansabdariadministrative system, also had similar features. In several ways, Jaipur state followed the archetypical successor state in the process of its expansion and its structure. It depicted the arbitrary nature of any typology of Indian princely states.
According to some eminent scholars, there were 7 criteria of autonomy which denoted the transformation from province to a successor state. These are mentioned below-
* The imperial military officer or the provincial governor in a small territory nominated or appointed his own revenue officers.
* Regional governors appointed their own successors.
* Revenues were used in the region and only ceremonial transmittals were provided to the centre.
* Governors engaged in autonomous diplomatic and military activities.
* Ruling family units established their principal residences in the provincial capitals instead of setting up at the Mughal court.
* Coinage was casted in silver at least in order to replace the imperial silver rupees.
* Delivery of the khutbah, the Friday congregational sermon in the principal mosque, is in the name of the governor rather than the emperor.
Most of the Successor States of India implemented the initial 5 functions in a chronological order, but the final 2 stages were mostly avoided by almost all the states. Awadh was the standard model for the expansion and growth of a successor state. The successor state of Bengal was rather short lived and Hyderabad, the third successor state, was the most long lived one and also was one of the last territories that was included in the Mughal Empire. Hyderabad became a successor state during the 19th century.
Conquest States of India
Conquest or Warrior states formed the 3rd category of Princely States of India, even though use of military force use of military force was a major factor. This refers to the regions that were formed by the warrior groups who challenged the over-extending authority in order to establish new political units by providing military protection to the local populace. Vijayanagar was a Conquest state of the earlier regime which served as a structural predecessor of the Maratha states.
The founders of warrior states were mainly leaders of different clan who performed special services for a prevailing ruler. These military leaders received generous compensation such as rights to the produce of land and various honours and titles of sovereignty. These growing rulers often agreed to nominal inclusion into the Mughal structure as mansabdars, but usually avoided participation in the governance of the empire on either imperial or provincial level. Among all the 3 types of Princely States of India, Conquest or Warrior states are the most diverse. After the revolt of 1857, Rampur in western Uttar Pradesh was the only remainder of Rohilla Afghan power. Bhopal in central India was also considered as one of the large conquest states.
(Last Updated on : 10-03-2012)
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