(Last Updated on : 28/09/2011)
Musical Instruments in Natyashastra
are described as four different kinds. They are stringed, instrument of percussion, solid and hollow. The stringed instruments have strings. The instruments of percussion include drums. Cymbal belongs to the solid type and the hollow consists of flutes. As far as the dramatic performance is concerned these have three fold applications: that in which stringed instruments are mainly used, that in which percussion instruments are mainly used and the general application during the dramatic performance.
In the orchestra or the stringed instruments the singer, the players of Veena
appear. Players of Mridanga
, Panava and Dardara are called Avanaddha Varga or orchestra of covered instruments
The orchestra pertaining to actors and actresses of the Uttama, Adhama and Madhyama kinds occupy various places on the stage at the time of drama. Through various kinds of music Natya is embellished. In this manner Gana, Vadya and Natya that depend on diverse things should be made by the sponsors of the play like the Ajitacakra.
The playing on the stringed instruments that is accompanied by various other instruments is known as Gandharva. It includes Svara, Tala and Pada. The source is vocal music, the Veena and the flute. There are three kinds of Gandharva: Svara, Tala and Pada.
: Svaras have two bases: the human body and the Vina. The Svaras that arise from the two are: Gramas Murcchanas, Tanas, Sthanas (Voice Registers), Vrittis Sadharana Svaras, Varnas Alamkaras, Dhatus, Srutis and Jatis.
Vocal Music have the following: Svaras, Gramas, Alankaras, Varnas, Sthanas, Jatis and overlapping notes are available in the Veena of the human throat (vocal music).
There are twenty formal aspects of Tala: Avapa, Niskrama, Viksepa Pravesaka, Samya, Tala, Sannipata, Parivarta, Vastu, Matra, Vidari Anga, Lava, Yati, Prakarana, Giti, Avayava Marga, Padabhaga and Pani. The Seven Svaras are Sadja (sa), Rsabha
(Ri), Gandhara (Ga), Madhyama (Ma) Paficama (Pa), Dhaivata (Dha) and Nisada (Ni). As far as their relation to an interval of Srutis are concerned there are of four kinds like Vadi (Sonant), Samvadi (consonant), Anuvadi (Assonant) and Vivadi (Bisonant).
That which is an important part anywhere it is known as Vadi. Those two Svaras which are at an interval of nine or thirteen Srutis from each other are Samvadins. They are Sadja and Madhyama, Risabha and Dhaivata, Gandhara and Nisada in the Sadja Grama.