History of Orang National Park
This area was inhabited by the local tribes till 1900 after which they abandoned it on account of an epidemic disease. However in 1915, it was declared as Orang Game Reserve by the British. It was established as a wild life sanctuary in 1985 and was renamed as Rajiv Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary in 1992. But the local people were against the renaming and thus this action had to be reversed. Eventually, the sanctuary was declared as National Park in 1999.
Geography of Orang National Park
Orang National Park encompasses an area of 78.81 square kilometers. It lies on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River. This park is bordered by Pachnoi River, Belsiri River and Dhansiri River and joins the Brahmaputra River. During the monsoon season, the park becomes a flood plain that constitutes twelve wetlands in the park. The park is an integral part of Indo-Burma biodiversity. The park has been categorized into: Eastern Himalayan Moist Deciduous Forest; Eastern Seasonal Swamp Forest, Eastern Wet Alluvial Grassland, Savannah Grassland, Degraded Grassland, Water body, Moist Sandy area and Dry Sandy area. The park has an elevation that varies from 45 meters to 70 meters. The park is surrounded by inhabited villages.
Climate of Orang National Park
The park witnesses all three seasons namely summer, monsoon, and winter. It experiences subtropical monsoon climate with rainfall precipitation that occurs during the period from May to September. The average annual rainfall is 3,000 millimeters.
Flora of Orang National Park
The park also houses rich forests, natural forest and non-aquatic grass or plants. The forest species found here are Bombax ceiba, Dalbergia sissoo, Sterculia villosa, Trewia nudiflora, Zizyphus jujuba and Litsaea polyantha. Among the non aquatic grassland species the prominent are Phragmites karka, Arundo donax, Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum spp. The aquatic grass species found here are Andropogon spp., Ipomoea reptans, Enhydra fluctuans, Nymphaea spp. and Water hyacinth.
Fauna of Orang National Park
Orang National Park houses several mammalian species. Royal Bengal Tiger, Asiatic elephant, Pygmy Hog, hog deer and wild boar are also found in the park. There are fifty species that reside in the rivers. Some important endangered species are Blind Gangetic Dolphin, Indian Pangolin, Rhesus Macaque, Bengal Porcupine, Indian Fox, Small Indian Civet, Otter, Leopard cat and Jungle Cat etc. Seven species of Turtle and Tortoise are also found. Indian Rock Python, Black Krait, King Cobra, Cobra, Monitor Lizard are the reptiles found in this park. The park is also a home to a range of migratory birds, water birds, predators, scavengers and game birds.
Visiting Information to Orang National Park
The best time to visit the park is between the months of October and April. The park is well connected to all parts of Assam. Its nearest town is Tezpur located at a distance of 32 km from the park. Guwahati is 140 km from the park. Nearest railheads are at Salonibari (41 km) and Rangpapara. Nearest airport is at Salonbari. National Highway 52 is 15 km away from Orang National park.
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